View Full Version : Discuss the composition and functions of the security council. (2004)

09-08-2012, 05:46 AM
1. Introduction:
Security council is the principal organ of the united nations. it is a continuously functioning body. it acts on behalf of the united nation. the primary responsibility of security council is to maintain peace at the international level. security council has to perform the work of an executive nature.
2. Historical background:
The Dumbarton Oaks proposals had envisaged the need for an executive organ of limited membership, which would be entrusted with primary responsibility of maintenance of international peace and security the failure of league council surfaced the need of a small executive organ, functioning continuously and be able to take decisions promptly in order to bring into motion the enforcement mechanism provided in chapter VI of the charter of united nations. finally in San Francisco it was decided to establish such a body in form of security council.
3. Composition of security council:
Total members:
Total members of the security council are 15.
(a) Permanent members:
There are 5 permanent members which are following.
(i) China.
(ii) Russia.
(iii) France.
(iv) United States of America.
(v) United Kingdom.
(b) Non- Permanent members:
There are 10 non- permanent members of the council. they are elected by the general assembly of the united nation for two years.
Geographical allocation of seats:
According to 1991 resolution 28-A the geographical allocation of seats of non- permanent member are as under.
AFRO Asia = 5
Eastern Europe =1
Western Europe =2
Latin America 2
Total 10
4. Voting procedure:
A negative vote caste by member is called vote. each member of the security council shall have one vote. the decisions of the security council on procedural matter shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members and decisions on all other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concerning votes of the permanent members provided that in decisions under chapter VI and article 52 under paragraph 3, a party to dispute shall abstain from voting.
5. Veto power of security council:
Article 2793) lays down that the permanent members of the council shall have power to prevent by their sole votes, the making of decision by the council.
6. President of security council:
Security council elects a president for presiding its meeting. security council is free to decide on the methods of selecting its president.
(i) Election of president:
He is elected by rotation on a monthly basis in the English Alphabetical order of the names of members of security council.
7. Functions and powers of security council:
Functions and powers of security council are as under.
I. Maintenance of international peace and security:
The purpose of creating UN as well as its security council was world peace in order to ensure prompt and effective action by the united nation the members states have conferred upon the security council the "primary responsibility" for maintenance of world peace and security.
(i) Ways to maintain world peace:
There are two ways to maintain world peace.
(a) Pacific settlement of disputes.
(b) Enforcement by action.
(a) Pacific settlement of disputes:
The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of the international peace and security, shall first of all, seek solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements or other peaceful means of their own choice. the security council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.
(b) Enforcement of action:
Security council may call for military assistance from other members states for maintenance of world peace.
(ii) Role of security council in world peace:
Security council has played significant role in maintaining world peace and security in following, especially.
(i) Indonesia.
(ii) Palestine.
(iii) Congo.
(iv) Cyprus.
(v) Arab- Israel conflict 1973.
(vi) Afghanistan.
(vii) Indo- Pak conflict.
II. Elective functions:
The security council and the general assembly separately elect the judges of international court of justice and also recommends the appointment of the secretary general of the united nations. the security council elects its own president for presiding the meetings.
III. Supervisory functions:
The security council supervises the function of the organization as a whole although its supervisory functions are not wide as that of the general assembly but it has been conferred upon some very important functions in regard to the expulsion and suspension of the members it may not be wrong to content through this, it exercises supervision upon the united nation as whole according to article 5 "A member of the united nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the security council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the general assembly upon the recommendation of the security council. the exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the security council.
IV. Constituent functions:
The security council amends the charter of united nation. according to article 108. 'amendment to the present charter shall come into force for all members of general assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two third of the members of the united nations, including the permanent members of the security council.
8. Binding character of the resolutions of the security council:
The member of the united nations agree to accept and carryout the decisions of the security council in accordance with the present charter.
9. Conclusion:
To conclude I can say that, the security council is one of the principal organs of the united nations. the maintenance of peace is the primary responsibility of security council. it has almost the character of a governmental body and ten non- per- manent members elected by the general assembly for two years. the functions of security council are, maintenance of international peace and security, appointment of judges of I. C. J, admission of new states etc. the resolution of security council are binding on all member states.