Who in organizations are responsible for managing change activities? 3
• Change agents can be managers, employees of the organization, or outside consultants.
• Typically, we look to senior executives as agents of change.
For major change efforts, top managers are increasingly turning to temporary outside
consultants with specialized knowledge in the theory and methods of change.
• Consultant change agents can offer a more objective perspective than insiders can.
• They are disadvantaged in that they often have an inadequate understanding of the
organization’s history, culture, operating procedures, and personnel.

What can management do to create a more ethical culture within an organization? 5
Ethical behavior
– “Good” and “right” as opposed to “bad” or “wrong” in a particular setting.

An organization’s ethics are rules, beliefs, and values that outline ways in which managers and workers should behave when confronted with a situation that may help or harm other people inside or outside an organization. Ethical behavior enhances the well-being (the happiness, health, and prosperity) of individuals, groups, organizations, and the organizational environment.
Ethics establish the goals and behaviors appropriate to the organization. Many organizations have the goal of making a profit, to be able to pay workers, suppliers, and shareholders. Ethics specifies what actions an organization should take to make a profit and what limits should be put on organizations and their managers to prevent harm.
Ethics can also define an organization’s social responsibility, moral responsibility toward individuals or groups outside the organization that are directly affected by its actions. Different organizations have different views about social responsibility. Being socially responsible means performing any action as long as it is legal. Others do more than law requires and work to advance the well-being of their employees, customers, and society in general. Ben & Jerry’s Homemade, Inc. contributes a percent of profits to charities and community needs. Green Mountain Coffee Roasters seeks out coffee growers who do not use herbicides and pesticides and control soil erosion. All organizations need codes of
conduct that spell out fair and equitable behavior to avoid doing harm.

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of External Change Agents? 5
External Change

More objective views
More diverse experience
May have more specific experience and knowledge

Less knowledge of the
Requires higher out-of pocket costs
An unknown quantity
Longer start-up time
Hurts management’s

What purposes do performance evaluations serve in organizations? 5
Reading this you can get the answer that what purposes it do for organization.
Performance evaluation
• Managers are strongly influenced in their decision making by the criteria by which they are
evaluated. Their performance in decision making will reflect expectation.
Performance Evaluation
• An employee’s performance appraisal is very much dependent on the perceptual process.
• Although the appraisal can be objective, many jobs are evaluated in subjective terms. Subjective measures are, by definition, judgmental.
• To the degree that managers use subjective measures in appraising employees, what the
evaluator perceives to be good or bad employee characteristics or behaviors will significantly
influence the outcome of the appraisal.

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When it is said that organizational change is due to some internal forces then what sort of forces you will recognize that are responsible for this change? 5


When we speak of change, we mean an alteration in organization design, strategy or processes, or some
other attempt to influence an organization’s members to behave differently.
Internal Forces for Change


Work Climate


Distinguish between the roles of mediator, arbitrator, conciliator, and consultant? 5

• A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion, suggesting alternatives, and the like.
This party imposes its decision on involved parties.
The third party acts as a mediator, taking a neutral stance and helping parties reconcile their differences. If no solution is reached, the third party acts as an arbiter, or judge, imposing a solution.

Two processes occur in any negotiation situation: (1) distributive bargaining, in which parties decide how
resources are distributed, and (2) attitudinal structuring, in which parties try to influence their opponent’s attitudes, perhaps appearing aggressive to increase their resource share or by appearing conciliatory to preserve a relationship.

The consultant works with the client in jointly diagnosing what processes need
Improvement By having the client actively participate in both the diagnosis and the
development of alternatives, there will be greater understanding of the process
and the remedy and less resistance to the action plan chosen.
The process consultant need not be an expert in solving the particular problem
that is identified. The consultant’s expertise lies in diagnosis and developing a
helping relationship.

What is flextime? What are the advantages of flextime from an employee’s perspective and from management’s perspective?

Flextime: Employees work during a common core time period each day but have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core.

Survey feedback is an organizational development technique for bringing change. Discuss.?

Survey feedback
One tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational members, identifying discrepancies
among member perceptions, and solving these differences is the survey feedback
Everyone can participate, but of key importance is the organizational “family.”
a. A questionnaire is usually completed by all members in the organization or unit.
b. Organization members may be asked to suggest questions or may be interviewed.
c. The questionnaire asks for perceptions and attitudes on a broad range of topics.
The data from this questionnaire are tabulated with data pertaining to an individual’s
specific “family” and to the entire organization and distributed to employees.
a. These data then become the springboard for identifying problems and clarifying issues.
b. Particular attention is given to encouraging discussion and ensuring that
discussions focus on issues and ideas and not on attacking individuals.
Finally, group discussion in the survey feedback approach should result in members
identifying possible implications of the questionnaire’s findings.

How can conflict be managed successfully?
Pondy’s model suggests several methods to resolve conflicts. In collaboration, each side works toward a solution to satisfy its own goals plus the goals of the other side—both parties are better off after conflict resolution. In compromise, both parties negotiate to reach a mutually acceptable solution, but not necessarily one that achieves their goals
A primary responsibility of managers is to help subordinates resolve their disputes. Some managers spend much time managing conflict. Several techniques are helpful in managing conflict so that it results in functional rather than dysfunctional outcomes. These techniques concern changing attitudes and behaviors,
changing task relationships, and changing the organizational structure or situation.
Conflict is the struggle that arises when the goal-directed behavior of another person or group.
Whether conflict benefits or harms an organization depends on how it is managed
More related to this on page 128 handouts.

Question No: 49 ( Marks: 3 )
What is the purpose of conducting the job analysis?

Job Analysis is the SYSTEMATIC process of collecting and making judgments about all the important
information related to a job.

  • Job analysis outcomes or purposes
  • Job description
  • Job specification
  • Job evaluation

1. Purpose of job analysis in Recruitment and Selection:
Job analysis is very important for contents as:
• Job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;
• Appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered
to a candidate;
• Minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;;
• Orientation materials for applicants/new hires
2. Purpose of job analysis in Job evaluation
• Judges relative worth of jobs in an organization
• Sets fair compensation rates
3. Purpose of job analysis in Job design
• Reduce personnel costs, streamline work processes,
• Increase productivity and employee empowerment,
4. Purpose of job analysis in Compensation and Benefits:
Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:
• Skill levels
• Compensation job factors
• Work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)

Question No: 50 ( Marks: 3 )
Explain the role of 360 degree feedback in the measurement of performance.

The 360-degree evaluation is a common tool in human resource management. Simply put, it is a mechanism for evaluating someone's performance based on feedback from everyone with whom the individual comes in contact — supervisors, coworkers, partners, subordinates, the general public. It is a method of collecting input from many sources in an employee's environment.
This can be a powerful tool. Each of wants to know how we're doing in our work. This method of collecting evaluative input is an excellent source of motivation for employees because it provides a truly honest assessment of how the employee and her performance are viewed by a variety of constituents.
Question No: 51 ( Marks: 5 )
How the stress can be recognized?

Recognizing Stress
• Short-term physical symptoms
• Long-term physical symptoms
• Internal symptoms
• Behavioral symptoms
Short-Term Physical Symptoms
• Faster heart beat
• Increased sweating
• Cool skin
• Cold hands and feet
• Feelings of nausea, or 'Butterflies in stomach'
• Rapid Breathing
• Tense Muscles
• Dry Mouth
• A desire to urinate
• Diarrhea
Long-term Physical Symptoms
• Change in appetite
• Frequent colds
• Illnesses such as:
• Asthma
• Back pain
• Digestive problems
• Headaches
• Aches and pains
• Feelings of intense and long-term tiredness
Internal Symptoms
• Worry or anxiety
• Confusion, and an inability to concentrate or make decisions
• Feeling ill
• Feeling out of control or overwhelmed by events
Mood changes:
• Helplessness
• Restlessness
• Being more lethargic
• Difficulty sleeping
• Drinking more alcohol and smoking more
• Changing eating habits
• Relying more on medication
Behavioral Symptoms
• Talking too fast or too loud
• Fiddling and twitching, nail biting, grinding teeth, drumming fingers, pacing, etc.
• Bad moods
• Being irritable
• Defensiveness
• Being critical
• Aggression
• Irrationality
• Overreaction and reacting emotionally
• Reduced personal effectiveness
• Being unreasonably negative
• Making less realistic judgments
• Being unable to concentrate and having difficulty making decisions

Question No: 52 ( Marks: 5 )
Differentiate between job description and job specification.

Job description
The job description is a document that provides information regarding the tasks, duties, and
responsibilities of the job. Job description takes on an even greater importance under the
Americans with Disabilities Act because the description of essential job functions may be
critical to a defense regarding reasonable accommodation.

Where as Job specification
Minimum acceptable qualifications that a person should possess to perform the job are
included in the job specification. Some of the items often included are requirements for
education, experience, personality, and physical abilities.