here is the helping material which was used in the past papers hope it will be help full to the students INSHALLAH

SOS101 Introduction to sociology
Helping Material



1-Shared rules or guidelines for appropriate behavior in society are known as
a) discipline
b) compromises
c) judgement
d) norms
2.- What we perceive to be human nature will actually be somewhat different in different societies
because
a) different religions affect human nature
b) our behaviour is influenced by what we learn from our culture
c) human nature varies according to climate and other natural factors
d) the genetic pool is likely to differ between societies
3.- The evidence regarding the importance of instincts in human behavior shows that
a) many aspects of culture are genetically transmitted as instincts
b) human beings are guided by their instincts, just like any other living being
c) human beings do not inherit complex patterns of social behavior and so have no true instincts
d) instincts can be observed only in primitive societies
4.- A statement that gives meaning to facts by explaining the relationships among them is called
a) an ethnography
b) a generalization
c) a theory
d) a value judgement
5.- Notions as masculinity and femininity refer to
a) dissimilar chromosomes
b) social roles
c) sexual experiences
d) status inconsistencies
6.- Which of the following is not a modern institution ?
a) nuclear family
b) devaluation of women’s work
c) seperation of work and leisure
d) men’s rule through personal relations
7.- Stratification by gender is
a) an achieved status
b) an ascribed status
c) identical stratification by class
d) opposed to patriarcal stratification
8.- In most societies around the world, men have greater authority than woman within the family unit.
This structure of inequality is called
a) endogamy
b) exogamy
c) patriarchy
d) matriarchy
9.- The nuclear family
a) is historically the most commonly found kinship structure
b) is a modern institution
c) arose together with the insect toboo
d)always presupposes romantic love and attachment
10.- A cultural universal regarding human sexual behavior is
a) the disapproval of homosexuality
b) the insect taboo
c) the forbidding of adultery
d) the disapproval of premarital sexual activity
11.- Typically the allocation of financial resources and of household labor within families are
a) resolved in legal rational manner

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b) issues subjected to charismatic authority
c) independent of gender relation
d) the major areas of contention
12.- “Women are inferior to men in many ways. No wonder men are more successful than women.”
This statement reflects
a) a functionalist perspective
b) a conflict perspective
c) an interactionist perspective
d) a sexist attitude
13.- Socialization into gender roles
a) begins at infancy
b) begins in school
c) begins after puberty
d) end at puberty
14.- Despite all the difficulties in her life, Nurhayat, who came from a poor home, finished university
and graduate school and become a nuclear physicist. For Nurhayat, being a nuclear physicist is
a) an achieved status
b) an ascribed status
c) a masterstatus
d) a status inconsistency
15.- A class system is based on
a) the economic relationships between individuals
b) a rigid stratification of ascribed statuses
c) high level of education
d) the belief that money brings happiness
16.- In a class system persons are placed into their class position
a) through political power
b) through the market mechanism
c) invariably by birth
d) by sheer luck
17.- Class system differs from the caste system in terms of individuals’
a) economic freedom
b) economic inequality
c) political freedom
d) status inequality
18.- In a class society
a) economic power leads to political power
b) politiacal power leads to economic power
c) economic power and political power are identical
d) economic power and political power are contradictory
19.- The historical process which seperates the worker from the means of production is called
a) defamation
b) de-humanization
c) dispossession
d) revolution
20.- Universally applicable written rules in an indication of
a) nominal freedom
b) formal rationality c) liberal democracy d) real inequality
21.- Capitalism and non-market structures
a) always exist in a conflict
b) can be successfully combined
c) tend to converge over the long term
d) tend to eliminate each other
22.- The structured inequality of entire groups of people in society is called
a) the economic order
b) social stratification
c) poverty
d) social status


23.- “ The state exists simply for the protection of interests of the wealthy and powerful”. This
statement illustrates
a) functionalist theory
b) conflict theory
c) interactionist theory
d) capitalist theory
24.- Weber explains the rise of modern state as an outcome of
a) popular sovereignty
b) class domination
c) rationalization
d) political hierarchies
25.- In any system of inequality, the powerless typically consent to the power relationship because
a) of particularistic norms
b) power alternates between people
c) they see it as legitimate
d) they have internalized democratic principles
26.- Economic freedoms
a) do not allow for a liberal democracy
b) do not guarantee political freedoms
c) violate the principles of civil society
d) lead to the abolition of class inequalities
27.- The modern state typically rules over
a) an ethnically homogeneous population
b) a distinct religious community
c) a circumscribed territory
d) a multiplicity of nations
28.- The organization of modern state is
a) bureaucratic
b) egalitarian
c) communal
d) fundamental
29.- Which of the following does not characterize the modern state
a) legal uniformity
b) personal particularisms
c) territorial power
d) universal rules
30.- Hierarchy based on personal dependancy is a characteristic of
a) private property systems
b) the seperation between state and civil-society
c) communal property rights
d) modern bureaucracies
31.- A political system is unstable and will not last over the long run if it is based only on
a) coercion
b) legal-rational authority
c) traditional authority
d) legitimation
32.- Fragmented power structures characterize
a) capitalist society
b) democratic systems
c) feudal orders
d) charismatic authority
33.- The realm of citizenship implies
a) the freedoms of civil society
b) the pursuit of self interest
c) rights and obligations as members of a community
d) elimination of class inequalities
34.- Liberal democracy is impossible
a) in a system of personalized and particularistic power structure
b) in a system of class inequalities
c) if ideologies cover up power relations
d) if the struggles of workers oppose capitalist privilege
35.- Popular sovereignty is typical of
a) the feudal orders
b) colonial empires
c) the modern state
d) rational bureaucracy
36.- The most important social class for the development of democracy is
a) the landed aristocracy
b) the capitalist class
c) the middle class
d) the working class
37.- Which of the following is a correct association
a) Marx and bureaucracy
b) Marx and status groups
c) Weber and rationalization
d) Weber and exploitation
38.- All religions share the following characteristic(s)
a) monotheism
b) seperation between sacred and profane
c) a myth of the origin of universe
d) all of the above
39.- From a sociological point of view, which of the following may be considered a religious form of
belief
a) science
b) superstition
c) intense nationalism
d) belief in magic
40.- Marx argued that belief in religion was a
a) personal matter
b) form of alienation
c) source of exploitation
d) facilitator of class conflict
41.- Durkheim argued that through religion people actually worshipped
a) nature
b) themselves
c) society
d) the powerful
42.- According to Durkheim, religious rituals contribute to
a) anomy
b) social inequality
c) social change
d) social solidarity
43.- Weber’s ideas on religion differ from Marx’s and Durkheim’s because he sees religion as
a) a conservative force
b) a source of social change
c) an outcome of rationalization
d) a universally unifying phenomenen
44.- Which classical theorist predicted the decline of religion as a result of modernization
a) Marx
b) Weber
c) Durkheim
d) all of the above
45.- Which classical theorist said that “ religion is the opium of the masses” ?
a) Marx
b) Weber
c) Durkheim
d) None of the above
46.- Which classical theorist linked the rise of capitalism to the protestant ethic
a) Marx
b) Weber
c) Durkheim
d) All of the above
47.- Political secularization
a) is an imperative of the modern territorial state
b) is an outcome of the evolution of religions
c) creates inequalities between different religious communities in the same nation
d) contradicts the principles of liberal democracy
48.- Islam is
a) opposed to the pursuit of happiness
b) opposed to profit making and accumulation
c) not conducive to economic development
d) not antagonistic to capitalism
49.- Science and technology tend to replace
a) all religions
b) western religions only
c) eastern religions only
d) magic amd superstition
50.- Unexpectadly, globalization has led to a revival of religions because
a) of reaction to the global spread of rationalization of life
b) of the need to create new communities in the face of declinig nation state
c) modernization never really brought answers to ethical questions or explained the ultimate waning of life
d) of all the above reason

What is the most likely cause of patriarchy
a) physical superiority of men over women
b) intellectual superiorty of men over women
c) moral superiority of men over women
d) women’s role in childbearing and child rearing
e) women’s inability to participate in public activities
f) women’s role as sexual objects
2.- Who wrote “ A Vindication of the Rights of the Women”
a) Marie Gouze
b) Mary Romera
c) Mary Wollstonecraft d) Emmeline Pankhurst e) Simone de Beauvoir f) Sojourner Truth
3.- An important event in feminism, which occured during the middle of the 19th century was:
a) granting women to vote in the united states
b) granting equal rights to men and women in the process of ending slavery
c) the presantation to the British Parliament of a petition demanding voting rights for women
d) the increasing involvement of women in industrial workplace
4.- modren prostitution is directly connected to
a) the brake up of small - scale communities
b) the development of large urban areas
c) the development of impersonal urban areas


d) the commercialization of social relations
e) all of the above
5.- gender refers to
a) physical differences in the body
b) pshchological, social and cultural differences
c) sexual orientation
d) intellectual differences
e) societal role playing
f) emotional differences
6.-............................. is a congenital abnormality in which a person is born with male chromosal
identity (XY)but external female genitalia
a) andogenital syndrome
b) hermaproditism
c) sexual permutation
7.-What do the sociologist regard as one of the main factors that distinguish religion from magic ?
a) the use of ritual to influence natural events
b) the practice of collective ceremonial by a community of believers
c) the accptance of alms and offerings
d) the class and status difference between believers and worshipers
8.-What is animism ?
a) the worship of animals
b) the belief in one god
c) the worship of carnal lusts and desires
d) the belief that every species of animals has supernatural power
e) the belief in spirits
9.- What did Feuerbach mean by alienation ?
a) people are seperated from their gods
b) people attribute their own cultural values to alien beings
c) people forget the religion of their origin
d) people reject all religions but their monotheistic religion
e) people express their religion through fundamentally non-religious ways
10.- According to Durkheim the totem is sacred because it is
a) profane
b) the emblem of the group itself
c) the ceremonial center
d) the most valuable possession of the community
e) an expression of a mode of thinking
11.- Max Weber regarded Christianity as a :
a) backward religion
b) other-wordly religion
c) progressive religion
d) salvation religion
e) profane religion
f) sacred religion
12.- The process whereby religion loses its influence is called :
a) fundamentalism
b) revivalism
c) purification
d) secularization
e) alienation
13.-Dependancy theory argues that the global society has developed................................ such
that......................
a) evenly ; everyone has developed
b) evenly; inequality has declined
c) evenly ; the core has benefited
d) unevenly ; everyone has developed
e) unevenly ; the core has benefited
14.- In the development of the capitalist world, the.......................... countries included Holland and
France
a) core
b) semi-periphery
c) non-periphery
d) periphery
e) external area
15.- Which theorists proposed the most influental social evolutionary theory today ?
a) Karl Marx
b) Charles Darwin
c) Max Weber
d) Talcott Parsons
e) Daniel Bell
f) John B. Foster
17.- Which of the following is the MOST important of economic influences affecting recent social
change ?
a) technology
b) industrial capitalism
c) socialism
d) episodes of change
18.-Which cultural influence is tho most significant influence on recent social change ?
a) the development of science
b) the development of technology
c) secularization of thought
d) the growth of religion
e) a) and c)
f) none of the above
19.- The Ottoman Empire was successful in building up
a) a patrimonial bureaucracy
b) feudalism
c) an oriental despotism
d) a centrist system
e) religious order
20.- According to Shills, membership in the society is constituted
a) by a sense of being located in a bounded territory
b) by relationship to the central zone
c) by a sense of citizenship
d) through nationalism
e) by collective consciousness
21.- Ottoman reform policy during the Tanzimat period is an attempt
a) to modernize the bureaucracy
b) for fiscal, administrative and educative modernization
c) to integrate the periphery
d) a) and b)
e) all of the above
22.-Democrat Party who gained electoral support in 1950 elections in Turkey
a) was founded by some of the prominent members of the RPP
b) expressed the new demands of periphery
c) emerged as the agent of integration between town and village
d)
b) and c)
e) all of the above
23.- the military intervention of May 27, 1960
a) installed democracy
b) increased the polarity between the center and the periphery
c) reinforced nationalism
d) all of the above
e) legitimized people’s sovereignty
24.-during the 1980’s the political discource was marked by
a) ideological confrontation
b) consensus seeking
c) mass media
d) all of the above
e) terrorism

25.- Weak historicity refers to semi- perpheral economies and dependent countries
a) true
b) false
26.-The autonomization of the civil society means seperation from the state in economic, ideological and
cultural terms
a) true
b) false