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Thread: Theory of Abrogation Discuss the theory of abrogation in Quran in detail

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    Word Icon 35px Jpg.ashx Theory of Abrogation Discuss the theory of abrogation in Quran in detail

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    Theory of Abrogation
    Q. Discuss the theory of abrogation in Quran in detail. (2002, 2006/A)
    Q. What do you know about theory of Naskh. (1994)
    1. Introduction
    There are some texts of the Quran and the traditions which have either been totally abrogated or their application limited or modified by subsequent texts. Many jurists hold that the abrogating and amending laws belong to the category of interpretive laws. All the four sunni school unanimously accept the doctrain of abrogation, though they may disagree on the details.
    2. Meaning of abrogation or naskh
    (I) Literal meaning
    The literal meaning of naskh is canceling or transferring.
    (II) Technical meaning
    “In its technical sense, it means the lifting of a legal rule through a legal evidence of a later date.”
    3. Theory of naskh in holy Quran
    The concept of naskh is a necessity in a legal system and Islamic law acknowledge it.
    Qurans says:
    “Whatever message (verse) we abrogate or causes to be forgotten we bring one better than it or like it.” (2: 106)
    “And when we put a revelation in place f another revelation.” (16: 101)
    4. Theory of naskh according to Sunnah
    It is narrated by Hazrat Abdullah bin Massod that a verse revealed on Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) was ordered to be recorded the companion wrote it on a rock table, next morning the companion saw it rubbed/cleaned, when matter takes to prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) he replied it was repealed.
    5. Classical theory of abrogation
    The doctrine of naskh has three fold meanings in Islamic jurisprudence.
    (i) Abrogation of all previous divine books by the holy Quran.
    (ii) The doctrine applied to repeal the Quranic verses which were said to be blotted out of extinction, the verses repealed.
    (a) Whose text and laws are both repealed.
    (b) Where only text was repealed but the law it gave remained in existence.
    (iii) Abrogation of earlier laws of the holy Quran with latter revelation.
    6. Kinds or types of naskh
    There are two types of naskh:
    (i) Explicit
    (ii) Implied
    (I) Explicit abrogation
    (I) When the law giver has explicitly stated that a rule is abrogate such abrogation is called as explicit abrogation.
    Example:
    Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said I had forbidden you from storing away the sacrificial meat because of the large crowds, you may now store it, as you wish.
    (II) Implicit abrogation
    When the law giver has not expressly pointed out the abrogation, but has laid down a new rule that conflicts with an earlier rule and there is no chance of reconciling, it is called implicit abrogation.
    Example:
    Quran says:
    “Those of you die and leave widows should bequeath for their widows a year’s maintenance without expulsion.”
    It means that the woman whose husband had died has to wait for a whole year, but another verse was revealed in this context which says.
    “If any of you die and leave widows behind, they shall wait concerning themselves four months and ten days.”
    This verse abrogation the earlier verse.
    Types of implicit abrogation
    Implicit abrogation is of two types.
    (i) Total abrogation (Naskh Kulli)
    Naskh is total, where it may lift the entire law and substitute another one for it.
    (ii) Partial abrogation (Naskh Juzi)
    When the law is repealed for a certain class alone, it is called partial abrogation. This is also called the overriding of a general law by a special law.
    Example
    A general law in the Quran provides penalties for all those who falsely accuse chaste woman of sexual intercourse.
    It then provides a special law in the case of spouses accusing each other of unchastity. The provisions of the general law are not applicable to spouses because the special law overrides that provision.
    7. Conditions for abrogation
    Following are the conditions for abrogation.
    (i) It must have been done during the lifetime of the holy Quran (Peace Be Upon Him).
    (ii) The abrogation text should be later in time.
    (iii) Both text should be equivalent in authencity and meanings.
    (iv) The next itself should not preclude the possibility of naskh.
    (v) Both texts should be in conflict and there should be no possibility of reconciliation.
    (vi) Both text must not revealed together.
    8. Methods or rules of abrogation
    (i) One text of Quran can abrogate another text.
    (ii) One Sunnah can abrogate another Sunnah.
    The mutawatir Sunnah can abrogate the rule in the Quran and vice verse.
    A khabar wahid can abrogate another khabir wahid.
    9. Examples of naskh from Quran and Sunnah
    (I) Examples from holy Quran
    One of the earlier cases of repeal of an earlier command was the directive to change the direction of the Qiblah “Bayt al Muqdas” to “Masjid al Haram.”
    “We see the turning of the face (for guidance) to the heavens now shall we turn thee to a Qiblah that shall please thee. Turn then thy face in the direction of the sacred mosque. Wherever ye are turn your faces in that direction.” (2: 144)
    (II ) Example from hadith
    “I have forbidden you from visiting the graves nay visit them for they remind you of the day of resurrection.”
    10. Limitation on the doctrine of naskh.
    Following are the limitation on the doctrine of naskh.
    (i) Divine attributes cannot be repealed e. g. tawhid, Prophets books of Allah etc.
    (ii) Moral trust sanctioned in Quran can’t be abrogated.
    (iii) A provision related with the circumstances which negate the possibility of time limitation can’t be abrogate e. g. Islamic shariah in its entirety can’t be repealed.
    11. Conclusion:
    To conclude, I can say, that the Islamic law works for the interest of human beings. The law was laid down in the period of the holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) gradually and in stages. It was the need of the time and society that the people who adopts Islam must be facilitated and doing so the principal of naskh or abrogation was acknowledged.
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    its very useful meterial....thanx

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