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    cs606 compiler construction midterm paper for virtual university students. These papers are in the form of .Doc format not in the PDF format.

    CS410 Visual Programming
    Final Term Examination Spring 2005
    Time Allowed: 150 Minutes
    Please read the following instructions carefully before
    attempting any of the questions:
    1. The duration of this examination is 150 Mins.
    2. This examination is closed book, closed notes, closed neighbors.
    3. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from
    anyone.
    a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the
    questions, attempt it to the best of your understanding.
    b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is
    missing, make an appropriate assumption and use it to solve
    the problem.
    4. Some of the examination consists of multiple-choice questions.
    Choose only one choice as your answer.
    a. If you believe that two (or more) of the choices are correct for a
    particular question, choose the best one.
    b. On the other hand, if you believe that all of the choices provided
    for a particular question are wrong then select the one that
    appears to you as being the least wrong.
    **WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious
    action against unfair means. Anyone found involved in
    cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.
    Total Marks: 160 Total Questions: 21
    Question No. 1 Marks : 05
    When generating a lexical analyzer from a token description, the item sets (states) are
    constructed by two types of "moves": character moves and ε-moves. ε-moves do not
    consume any input character, but merely expand non-basic items with repetition and
    composition operators.
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 2 Marks : 30
    Consider the following augmented grammar
    (a) Derive the canonical sets of LR( 1) items
    (b) Build the LR(1) parse table (Action/Goto)
    Question No. 3 Marks : 05
    The following two items
    {A→ P P,B → Q Q}
    can coexist in an LR item set.
    o True
    o False
    QuestionNo.4 Marks:05
    A recursive descent parser consists of a set of (recursive) routines, each routine
    corresponding closely to a rule in the grammar.
    - an empty production (N → ε) translates to a routine returning true without inspecting any
    token.
    o True
    o False
    QuestionNo.5 Marks:05
    The dependency graph associated with the attribute evaluation rule of some production
    rule (N→ α) captures how values flow from one attribute to another, hence, which
    attribute depends on which others.
    - An inherited attribute can depend on a synthesized attribute.
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 6 Marks : 05
    Dotted items (T→ α β) record which part of a token has already been matched. There are
    two kinds of basic items: shift items and reduce items.
    integer → ([0 - 9])+
    - This is a reduce item.
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 7 Marks : 05
    When dealing with attribute grammars it is important to detect cycles in the evaluation
    rules to prevent the evaluator to loop endlessly. In the case of dynamic cycle detection,
    the AST is traversed multiple times until either all attributes have obtained a value, or a
    maximum number of traversals is reached (in which case a cycle can be reported).
    - For an AST with N attributes, cycles can be detected dynamically by performing (at
    most) N evaluation traversals.
    o True
    o False
    QuestionNo.8 Marks:25
    Consider the productions and semantic rules for the expression grammar
    a) Write the three-address code that would be generated from the semantic rules
    shown for the program fragment (input string)
    x:=(a+b)* (c+a)
    b) How many temporary variables are used to implement this?
    c) The programming language designer has decided to add the pre-increment operator
    "++" to the grammar with the production "E →++id". This new operator increments
    id, and then returns the value (for example after the code, x=5; y=++x; is
    executed then x is 6 and y is 7). Add the semantic rule that will generate code
    for this new operator.
    Question No. 9 Marks : 05
    The regular expressions (a |b) + and a+ |b+ describe the same set of strings
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 10 Marks : 05
    In a CFG (Context Free Grammar) the set of terminal and non-terminal symbols may
    overlap.
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 11 Marks : 05
    The LR(1) parsing technique reduces a handle (the right-hand side of a production N → α)
    only when the current input token is an element of FOLLOW(N).
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 12 Marks : 15
    Consider the following ACTION/GOTO tables:
    Show the contents of the stack and input buffer for the shift-reduce parse of input "a",
    assuming state 0 is the start state:
    QuestionNo.12 Marks:05
    Register allocation by graph coloring uses a register interference graph.
    - If a node in the graph is connected to N other nodes, then at at least N + 1 registers
    (colors) are needed.
    o True
    o False
    QuestionNo.12 Marks:05
    Grammars with LL(1) conflicts can be made LL(1) by applying left-factoring,
    substitution, and left-recursion removal.
    - Left-factoring takes care of FIRST/FIRST conflicts.
    o True
    o False
    QuestionNo.12 Marks:05
    Code generation consists of three tasks:
    1. instruction selection
    2. register allocation
    3. instruction ordering
    - For generating "optimal" code these three tasks must be considered at once, because
    they dependent on each other.
    o True
    o False
    QuestionNo.12 Marks:05
    A lexical analyzer generated by lex is essentially a PDA (Push Down Automaton).
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 12 Marks : 05
    A lexical analyzer transforms a stream of characters into a stream of tokens.
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 12 Marks : 05
    The symbol table is used to pass information only between consecutive stages (lexical
    analysis, semantics analysis, etc.) in the compiler pipeline.
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 12 Marks : 05
    The stack used in a bottom-up parser contains an alternating sequence of states and
    grammar symbols.
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 12 Marks : 05
    When generating code at the basic block level, a dependency graph is used instead of an
    AST.
    - The nodes in the graph represent the basic blocks, and the edges capture the ordering
    dependencies that must be obeyed at execution time.
    o True
    o False
    Question No. 12 Marks : 05
    A top-down parser creates the nodes in the AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) in preorder.
    o True
    o False

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