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Thread: cs101 long questions answer fall 2010 december 4

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    which are old profession eliminated by computing
    While old professions are being eliminated …
    • Typists
    • Bank tellers
    • Telephone operators
    computer types
    Super computer
    Main fraim computer
    Servers
    Desktop
    Portable
    peer to peer n server/client network
    bridge and gateway
    Bridge
    Used to form a connection between two separate, but similar networks
    In a way, it creates an extended LAN by passing information between two or more
    LANs
    Gateway
    A special-purpose computer that connects and translates between networks that use
    different communications protocols
    LAN’s may use a gateway (or router) to connect to the Internet


    consistent web and its need
    what is the meant by DoS?
    DOS stand for Denial of service.
    Three Phases of the DoS
    1.Search
    2.Arm
    3.Attack
    1. Search for Drones
    • The attackers set about acquiring the control over the computers to be used in the
    attack …
    • by scanning – using e.g. Scan SW – a large numbers of computers attached to the
    Internet
    • Once a computer with a weak security scheme is identified, the attackers try a
    break-in
    • Once conquered, that computer – called a drone – will be used to scan others
    2. Arming the Drones
    • After several drones have been conquered, the DoS SW is loaded on to them
    • Examples: Tribal Flood Network, Trinoo, TFN2K
    • Like a time-bomb, that SW can be set to bring itself into action at a specified time
    • Alternatively, it can wait for a commencement command from the attacker
    3. The Actual Attack
    • At the pre-specified time or on command, the SW implanted on all of the drones
    wakes-up and starts sending a huge number of messages to the targeted servers
    • Responding to those messages overburdens the targeted servers and they become
    unable to perform their normal functions
    Who is computing professional?
    Computer scientists, software engineers, computer engineers, and some of the
    telecom engineers are generally classified as computing professionals
    what is a pixel?.
    Pixel:
    The smallest image forming element on a computer display
    The computer display is made up of a regular grid of these pixels
    The computer has the capability of assigning any color to any of the individual pixels on
    the display
    types of network according to distance between nodes
    Types of Computer Networks
    according to the distance between nodes
    LAN: Local Area Network)
    WAN: Wide Area Network)
    LAN
    A network of computers located in the same building or a handful of nearby buildings
    Examples:
    –Computer network at your PVC
    –Computer network of a University campus
    WAN
    A network in which computers are separated by great distances, typically across cities or
    even continents
    May consist of several interconnected LANs
    Example:
    –The network connecting the ATM of a bank located in various cities
    –A network connecting the local and oversea offices of a SW house
    –Internet
    responsibilities and profile of Architect
    Architect
    • Responsibilities:
    – Technology selection
    – High-level design
    – Makes certain that the implementation remains true to the design
    • Profile:
    – 10-15 years of development experience
    – In-depth experience in several technologies
    – MS or PhD in a technical discipline
    2. What is meant be TCP/IP ? .....mark-1
    Language of the Internet: TCP/IP
    Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
    • TCP breaks down the message to be sent over the Internet into packets
    • IP routes these packets through the Internet to get them to their destination
    • When the packets reach the destination computer, TCP reassembles them into the
    original message

    3. what is the best design methodology........3
    The designer starts by first conceiving a skeleton high-level design of the system, and
    then starts defining features of that over-all design in an ever-increasing detail
    Making small changes in the functionality of the systems sometimes leads to major re-
    design exercise
    Structured design emphasizes separating a program's data from its functionality
    Separating data from functionality typically leads to SW that is difficult to maintain &
    understand - especially for large SW systems
    4. what is the difference between internet and intranet......marks ...3
    Internet is the public and large network and intranet is the small area size network like office and in one building.
    5. give five points to make a website more readable to user........5 marks
    Put the main navigation on the left of the page
    Labels should be clear, understandable
    Elements must be large enough to be processed visually
    Related elements should be visually grouped through the use of space, color, or graphical
    boundaries
    Use sans serif (e.g. Arial, Helvetica, Verdana) typefaces for display on screen
    Avoid the overuse of bold and italics
    Avoid setting type in all caps

    6. What are Robotics and do Robotics beneficial for our life and business life?.....5 marks
    Robotics:
    Automatic machines that perform various tasks that were previously done by humans
    Example:
    Pilot-less combat airplanes
    Land-mine hunters
    Autonomous vacuum-cleaners
    Components: Body structure, actuators, power-source, sensors, controller (the AI-based
    part)
    7. How can we insert and image using HTML and javascript......5 marks
    Sorry java is not allowed.
    8. what happend in 7 Feb 2000 with the Yahoo website....tell the whole story .....10marks
    07 February 2000
    • Users trying to get on to the Web sites of Yahoo, couldn’t!
    • Reason: Their servers were extremely busy!
    • They were experiencing a huge number of hits
    • The hit-rate was superior to the case when a grave incident (e.g. 9/11) occurs, and
    people are trying to get info about what has happened
    • The only problem was that nothing of note had taken place!
    What was going on?
    • A coordinated, distributed DoS (Denial of Service) attack was taking place
    • Traffic reached 1 GB/s; many times of normal!
    • In the weeks leading to the attack, there was a noticeable rise in the number of
    scans that Internet servers were receiving
    • Many of these scans appeared to originate from IP addresses that traced back to
    Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, Austra

    9. Build a JavaScript event handler Code ( i have forgotten this question detail) ......10 marks
    Q. how heuristic architecture give benefit to the developer?
    Heuristics for system architecting
    Rules and lessons learnt by system architects
    after long experiences
    which when followed
    result in sound, stable, practical systems
    # 1 My favorite system architecting
    (and other relevant) heuristics
    --- in no particular order ---
    #2 Given many parts of a system to be designed/built,
    do the hard part 1 1s st t
    # 3 All the serious mistakes are made on the very first day
    # 4 Simplify, simplify, simplify!
    Probably the most useful heuristics for increasing reliability while decreasing cost &
    time-to-build
    # 5 If you can’t explain it in 5 minutes, either you don’t understand it or it does not
    work
    # 6 A system will develop & evolve much more rapidly
    if there are stable intermediate forms than if there
    Build iteratively; add features gradually
    # 7 Success is defined by the user, not the builder
    # 8 It’s more important to know what the customer needs instead of what he says he
    wants
    # 9 If you think that your design is perfect, it is only because you have not shown to
    anyone else
    --- Get your designs reviewed ---
    # 10 A good solution to a problem somehow looks nice & elegant
    # 11 In partitioning, choose the chunks so that they are as independent as possible
    Chunks should have low external complexity & high internal complexity
    Organize personal tasks to minimize the time individuals face interfacing
    # 12 Partition/repartition the problem until a model consisting of 7±2
    chunks emerges
    # 13 When choices must be made with unavoidably inadequate info:
    Choose the best available & then watch to see:
    whether further solutions appear faster than future problems .
    If so, the choice was at least adequate .
    If not, go back & choose again
    # 14 The Triage
    1. Let the dying die
    2. Ignore who’ll recover on their own
    3. Treat only those who’ll die without your help
    #15 Don’t just remove the defect; correct the process that caused it
    # 16 The number of defects remaining in a system after
    a given level of tests is proportional to the number found during the test
    # 17 Programmers deliver the same number of LOC/day regardless of the language they
    are writing in
    what is bandwidth ?
    Bandwidth
    Capacity of a communication channel for carrying data
    Measured in bits/s (bps), kb/s, Mb/s, Gb/s, Tb/s
    Optical fiber channels have the highest (1 Tb/s)
    Telephone lines the lowest (56 kb/s)
    what are primary keys and queries.
    Primary Key is a field that uniquely identifies each record stored in a table
    • Queries are used to view, change, and analyze data. They can be used to:
    – Combine data from different tables, efficiently
    – Extract the exact data that is desired
    what type of data can be stored in a database 1mark
    Database
    • A collection of data organized in such a fashion that the computer can quickly
    search for a desired data item
    • All data items in it are generally related to each other and share a single domain

    what is array, how these r defined in JS 5 marks

    Array:
    An indexed list of elements
    We said that a variable is a container that holds a value.
    Similarly, an Array can be considered a container as well, but this one can hold multiple
    values
    Array:
    An indexed list of elements
    Arrays in JavaScript
    • In JavaScript, arrays are implemented in the form of the ‘Array’ object
    • The key property of the ‘Array’ object is ‘length’, i.e the number of elements in an
    array
    • Two of the key ‘Array’ methods are:
    – reverse( )
    – sort( )
    • Elements of an array can be of any type; you can even have an array containing
    other arrays
    can an expert system replace a human doctor ,justify ur ans 5marks
    In my personal point of view a expert system cannot replace the human doctor. And the big for this is that systems and machines have no thinking capabilities and have no emotions.


    is tabular storage better than flat file storage,justify,

    yes tabular storage is better than storage. Because through this you can easily maintain your data and can access easily when you required.

    write a note on vector/object oriented graphics and bit-mapped/raster graphics

    Vector or Object-Oriented Graphics:
    Treats everything that is drawn as an object
    Objects retain their identity after they are drawn
    These objects can later be easily moved, stretched, duplicated, deleted, etc
    Are resolution independent
    Relatively small file size
    Examples: swf, svg, wmf, ps
    Bit-Mapped or Raster Graphics:
    Treats everything that is drawn as a bit-map
    If an object is drawn on top of another, it is difficult to move just one of them while
    leaving the other untouched
    Changing the resolution often requires considerable touch-up work
    Relatively large file size
    Examples: gif, jpg, bmp



    Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 )
    SMTP stands for what?
    SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
    A protocol used to send and receive eMail messages over a TCP/IP network
    Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 )
    In programming, what is an object ?
    Ans: An object is the collection of properties(date,state) ans methods (instruction ,behavior)

    Question No: 33 ( Marks: 2 )
    In which situation we should use Inline Event Handling?
    Ans: Event handler are placed in the BODY portion of a web page as attributes of HTML tags
    The event handler attributes consist of 3 parts
    a) The equal sign
    b) The identifier of event handler
    c) A string consisting of java script statements enclosed in double or single string
    Multiple javascript statements can be placed in that string ,but all have to fit in a single line .
    No new line characters with in line event handling

    Inline event handler can be used normally in a condition when we want to execute the event directly and quickly in the same line of code.

    Question No: 34 ( Marks: 2 )
    In JavaScript, what is event handling? What are the two types of events?
    Ans: In JavaScript capturing of an events and responding to them is event handling. The system sends events to the program and the program responds to them as they arrive.
    1. Events can include things a user does - like clicking the mouse.
    2. Events that the system itself does - like updating the clock.

    Question No: 35 ( Marks: 3 )
    What is the preferred organizational structure for the organization?

    Ans: Preferred Organizational Structure for organization is hierarchal. Where there is different departments interconnected with each other and are been divided according to the functions they perform.
    1)Executive Team
    2)
    a)business development team
    b )ArchitecutreTeam
    c)technology Transfer team
    3)
    a) configuration Management Team
    b)Process Team
    c)Quality assurance Team
    d)Support team
    4)
    a) development Team A
    b) development Team B
    c) development Team C
    d) development Team D


    Question No: 36 ( Marks: 3 )
    What are the Sub categories of Artificial Intelligence? Briefly explain any two.
    Ans
    a)Neural networks: original inspiration was human brain emphasis now usefulness as a computational tool
    1) Genetic Algorithms : based on darwins evolutionary principle
    GA requires the ability to recognize a good solution but not howto get to that solution
    2) rulebased systems
    b) the right techniques


    Question No: 37 ( Marks: 3 )
    Diffentiate Local and Global Variables.
    Ans:
    Local Variables:
    When a function is define the variable use for storing values are incorporated inside the function these variable are found and used only inside these function are called local variable .these have no presence out side the function
    Global Variables :Global variable on other hand are present through out the script and their values can be access by any function .They global scope

    Question No: 38 ( Marks: 5 )
    Write the JavaScript code for the Function SumOddNumbers(maxNumber) that can add non-negative odd numbers up to maxNumber and return their sum.

    Question No: 39 ( Marks: 5 )
    What is animated gif? How can we use it? If we animate images in JavaScript then is it better?
    Ans: It is bit map image format introduced in 1987by CompuServe. It support up to 8 bits per pixel. It also support animation And allow a separate palette of 256 colors for each frame.
    Uses:We can use it in web site they are suitable for sharp edged line art with limited number of colors. They are good for small animation and low resolution clips.
    The size is small and on web site they can uploaded and downloaded easily
    Question No: 40 ( Marks: 10 )
    What is the problem with Relational Database and what solution you can suggest for it?
    Ans:
    when we use to store object oriented data into a Relational database it need to be translated in form which is suitable for the relational database.
    Again when we need to read RDBMs the Data need again back to be translated into object oriented form to read.
    This two process delay associated processing and time spent in writing and maintaining the translation codes are the key disadvantage with Relational Database .
    Solution:
    Object oriented database
    Object Relational database
    The data should be divided and save in multiple table and tabular form ,so that open ,searching .sorting ,editing and saving of data can be performed quickly.
    With tabular form one can sort w.r

    Question No: 41 ( Marks: 10 )
    How can we neutralize DoS attack? Can we track the attacker?
    Ans: Denial of service attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its Intended user . Easiest way to survive an attack is to have planned for the attack.
    Good contact with ISP and some security providers and CERT are essential also having a separate emergency block of IP address for Critical servers with a separate rout can be effective.
    We should use genuine operating system can also be helpful.
    By using an extremely stateful packet filter that will inexpensively drop any unwanted packet serviving DoS attack Becomes much Easier.
    We can also use Fierwalls .
    Using Antivirus softwear
    Using private net work
    Using encryption
    Network Sniffer
    Intrusion detector By using all these techniques we can neutralize DoS Attack
    Investigative process should begin immediately after the DoS Attack begins.
    By using IP address we can Track Attacker.

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