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Thread: Q. What do you understand by the term 'Parliament".

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    Word Icon 35px Jpg.ashx Q. What do you understand by the term 'Parliament".

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    Q. What do you understand by the term 'Parliament". Discuss the term of national assembly and the period of its survival. (1999/A)
    Q. Explain the composition of parliament of Pakistan and discuss membership, functions and powers of the national assembly. (1997/S) (1995/A)
    1. Introduction:

    National assembly is the lower house of parliament. it is more powerful institution in law making and financial matters. National assembly of Pakistan is more powerful than senate.
    2. Relevant provisions:
    Article 23, 47, 50, 73, 91, 93, 95, 142, 143.
    3. Parliament under the constitution of 1973:
    Parliament is an authoritative institution. it can enact any type of law. it is a symbol of the people sovereignty. parliament in Pakistan which is known as "the Majlis-e-Shoora" consists of the president and two houses known as national assembly and the senate.
    4. Organization of National Assembly:
    In original constitution there were 200 seats in national assembly and 10 seats were reserved for women but in 1985 the seats were reserved to 207 and 10 seats for minorities so it became 217. now bu constitutional package the number of national assembly are as under.
    Province General seats Women Total
    Punjab 148 35 183
    Sindh 61 14 75
    N.W.F.P 35 08 43
    Balotishtan 14 03 17
    Fata 12 - 12
    Capital 2 - 2
    Minorities 10
    Total 272 60+10 342
    5. Conditions for voters:
    Following are the conditions for voters:
    1. He is citizen of Pakistan.
    2. He is not less than 18 years of age.
    3. He is sound minded.
    4. His name exists in the electoral roll.
    6. Qualification for member of national assembly:
    Following are the condition/qualification for membership of national assembly.
    (i) Age:
    He should not be less than 35 years of age.
    (ii) Citizenship:
    He should be citizen of Pakistan.
    (iii) Name in electoral roll:
    His name should be in electoral roll.
    (iv) Should not hold any office of profit:
    He should not hold any office of profit in service of Pakistan.
    (v) Education:
    He should have Bachelor degree from an institution recognized by high education commission.
    (vi) Mentally and Physically fit:
    He should be mentally and physically fit. 6. Method for election of national assembly:
    The members of national assembly are elected by direct method.
    7. Term for national assembly:
    The term of national assembly is five years, the term of five years shall commence from the day of its first meeting and shall stand dissolved at the expiration of its term.
    8. Quroum:
    The quroum is one-fourth membership of the assembly.
    9. Summoning and prorogation of the session:
    National assembly shall be summoned and prorogated by president of Pakistan.
    10. Sessions:
    There will be least, three sessions in a year and the interval between them shall not exceed 120 days. it is required to remain in session for at least, 130 days in a year.
    11. Dissolution of national assembly:
    National assembly can be dissolved by the president on the advise of prime minister but prime minister cannot give advise when resolution of vote of no confidence is under process in the house.
    12. Powers and functions of national assembly:
    I. Legislation:

    The primary function of the national assembly is to make laws. after is passed by the assembly it is sent to the senate for its consideration. if accepted by the senate and finally presented to the president for approvals.
    II. Amendment in the constitution:
    National assembly has the power to amend the constitution by the two third majority votes of its total membership.
    National assembly has control over administration. it control the leader of the house and ministers.
    (a) Method to control the administration:
    The following methods are adopted to control the administration.
    (i) Questions:
    The members of national assembly can put questions to the minister of the concerned department.
    (ii) Adjournment Motion:
    Every member has right to move motion. such event which are most important and relate to public brought to the government's notice.
    (iii) Resolution:
    National assembly can pass a resolution to express its view over any important matter.
    (iv) Vote of no-confidence:
    National assembly can pass a vote of no-confidence against the prime minister.
    (v) Criticism:
    National assembly can criticize the policies the federal government.
    (vi) Vote of censure:
    Besides criticism and questions the assembly can vote of censure against administrative acts.
    IV. Financial affairs:
    (i) Preparation of budget:

    The budget is prepared under the supervision of the national assembly.
    (ii) Approval of taxes:
    National assembly gives its approval in all tax matters.
    (iii) Approval of expenditures:
    National assembly gives its approval on the expenditures.
    (iv) Money bill originate in national assembly:
    Money bills always originate in the national assembly.
    (v) Power to criticize and discuss the budget:
    National assembly has power to criticize and discuss the budget when it is prepared.
    V. Electoral functions:
    (i) Election of P. M:

    National assembly elects it leader of the house it means prime minister.
    (ii) Election of president:
    National assembly also elects the president of Islamic republic of Pakistan.
    (iii) Election of speaker and deputy speaker:
    National assembly elects its own speaker and deputy speaker.
    VI. Judicial powers and functions:
    (i) Determination of organization of judiciary:

    National assembly determines the organization of the judiciary and number of judges.
    (ii) Impeachment of president:
    National assembly is empowered to proceed impeachment against the president.
    VII. Emergency powers and functions:
    National assembly can declare emergency in the counter. When there exists a grave danger to security of Pakistan. this is in fact power of president in emergency. national assembly can make laws in this regard.
    13. Conclusion:
    To conclude I can say that. the parliament is the supreme institution of the country. it is a law making body. its consists of two houses national assembly and the senate. national assembly is directly elected by the people. the term of national assembly is five year. it can be dissolved by the president. the leader of the national assembly is prime minister. national assembly in Pakistan is more powerful than the senate.

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