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Thread: STA630 Research Methods Assignment 1 Spring 2011 Idea Solution 15 April

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    Icon14 STA630 Research Methods Assignment 1 Spring 2011 Idea Solution 15 April

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    Literature review is not simply reading the relevant literature. It is about reading, and collecting the relevant material and writing in a sequential manner that can link the selected topic and literature. It is done to provide the background information of your study.
    A literature review consists of an outline of the relevant and significant literature on a particular research area. It provides a review on critical points of existing knowledge on a topic. This assignment is of practical nature and the purpose is to indulge you in an activity which will help you to write literature review in project/thesis. It will also help you in reading articles, extracting required information and developing linkages between two or more variables. It will really help you if you try to attempt this assignment devotedly having objective of learning in your mind.
    Before preparing your assignment read the given instructions carefully. A ‘model’ literature review has also been given below for your guidance. Furthermore, procedure of collecting articles for review from Google is given at the end. Follow the instructions and make a wonderful assignment.
    Best of Luck!
    Write a literature review on the following topic:
    “Effect of Training and Development on the Organizational Learning”

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    I need solution of 1st Assignment of STA 630 (Research method) about literature review on the topic "Effect of Training & Development on the Organizational Learning."

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    How to collect articles:
    Use HEC Digital Library to search/ download articles.
    The other source for free articles is Google Scholar. Please follow the procedure given below to find articles on Google Scholar:
    Click here for Google scholar
    Write the topic or relevant factors
    It will search the relevant material for you.
    Related Articles option
    Advance Search
    Cited by option

    Click the link you think is most appropriate and relevant to the topic given, save the material, read it and write by properly acknowledging and referring the author. Please follow the sample provided. You can also use advance search link to specify the options.

    Using “cited by option” and “Related Article option” will help you in finding the articles in which that particular article has been cited/used and the related topic respectively. These options are also useful in finding the relevant material.

    Model Literature Review on Effect of Empowerment Practices on Organizational Commitment
    Over the 50 years empowerment or participation is the subject of research. (Nykodym, Simonetti, Nielsen &Welling, 1994).Empowerment is the ability of the employee to make the choices which are perceived as the difference for the employer. One element of this ability is that at any given time choices are open to the employee and after making the choice employee will be able to continue making choices. (Guy, 2003).A number of researchers define empowerment; the original meaning of empowerment is giving power to the other person or authorize. (Tulloch, 1993).It is being considered that empowerment is the part of a process and it is the combination of the subordinate psychological state that is affected by the supervisor behavior of empowering the subordinate. (Pastor, 1996).

    In providing quality of services employee empowerment is the major factor that has the significant impact. (Samat, Ramayah & Saad, 2006).Services providing organizations are paying more attention towards employee empowerment in order to improve the service quality. (Cacioppe, 1998).Empowerment is the process that basically motivates the employees to make use of their experiences and skills by providing the power and authority so that the employees work effectively. (Eccles, 1993).

    Empowerment includes employee commitment and involvement level. (Val & Lloyd, 2002).Previous researches show that empowerment is positively linked with work satisfaction. Empowerment was envisaged by an individual locus of control, availability of information and self esteem. Spreitzer’s (1995) .Empowerment significantly impacts the employee intention to leave the organization. (Avey, Hughes, Norman, Luthans, 2007).Empowerment should be divided in two components that are psychological and behavioral. ( Meyerson & Kline, 2007). Employees develop higher level of trust in their managers when they feel empowered (Moye & Henkin,2006).By giving power to the employees in decision making can lead to greater responsibility on the behalf of employees in achieving job and customer satisfaction.(Jarrar & Zairi,2002). So by empowering teachers it assist them in improving leadership skills, improves work-life quality, and improve professionalism. (Dee, Henkin & Duemer, 2003). Empowerment plays a significant impact on organizational commitment of the employee. (Lee, Nam, Park & Lee, 2006).

    Defining empowerment
    Supporting with literature
    Establishing link with own research

    From 30 years the concept of organizational commitment is evolving. (Putterill & Rohrer, 1995).Organizational commitment of the employees get positively influences if there are opportunities to work challenging tasks.(Chew & Chan, 2007).According to Parish, Cadwallader & Busch (2008) Employees commit more positively to the change occurring at workplace only when they judge the role autonomy. Depending upon the level of attachment of an individual the consequences of commitment varies accordingly (O’Reilly & Chatman, 1986).

    Defining Commitment
    The success of the organization depends upon the organizational commitment that can be gain by the involvement of the employee. (Denton, 1994) In the innovation process it is very important employ the knowledge and skills of the employees. (McEwan & Sackett, 1997).The degree to which employees inquire about empowerment varies significantly. (Greasley ,Bryman, Naismith & Soetanto, 2008).Previous researches founded that organizational commitment increases accordingly as the work empowerment perception

    Linking commitment and empowerment
    increase.( Liu ,Chiu &Fellows, 2007).organizational learning is facilitated by the empowerment which ultimately enhances the commitment level. (Bhatnagar, 2007).

    Avey.J.B., Hughes.L.W., Norman.S.M., & Luthans.K.W. (2008). Using positivity, transformational leadership and empowerment to combat employee negativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,29 (2), 110-126.

    Bhatnagar. J. (2007). Predictors of organizational commitment in India: strategic HR roles, organizational learning capability and psychological empowerment The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18 (10) ,1782-1812.

    Cacioppe.R. (1998). Structured empowerment: an award-winning program at the Burswood Resort Hotel. Leadership & Organization,Development Journal 19(5), 264–274.

    Referencing Format

    Dee.J.R., Alan B. Henkin.A.B. & Duemer.L.(2003).Structural antecedents and psychological correlates of teacher empowerment.Teacher Empowerment, 41(3), 257-277.

    Denton.D.K. (1994). Empowerment through Employee Involvement and participation Ford’s Development and Training Programs. Empowerment in Organizations, Vol. 2 No. 2, 1994, pp. 22-28

    Greasley.K., Bryman.A., Dainty.A., Price.A., Naismith.N., & Soetanto.R.(2008). Understanding empowerment from an employee perspective What does it mean and do they want it?. Team Performance Management,14 ( ˝), 39-55.

    Guy.F.(2003). High-involvement work practices and employee bargaining power. Employee Relations, 25 (5), 453-469.

    Jarrar.y.f., & Zairi.M. (2002). Employee empowerment-a UK survey of trends and best practices. Managerial auditing journal, 17(5), 266-271.
    Lee.Y.K., Nam.F.H., Park.D.H., & Lee.K.A.(2006). What factors influence customer-oriented prosocial behavior of customer-contact employees?. Journal of Services Marketing,20(4) ,251–264.

    Liu.A.M.M., Chiu.W.M., & Fellows.R.(2007). Enhancing commitment through work empowerment. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 14(6),568-580.

    McEwan.A.M., & Sackett.P.(1997). Theoretical considerations of employee empowerment within computer integrated manufacturing production. Empowerment in Organizations, 5 (3), 129-138.

    Meyerson.S.L., & Kline.T.J.B.(2008). Psychological and environmental empowerment: antecedents and consequences. Leadership & Organization Development Journal ,29 ( 5) ,444-460.

    Moye.M.J., & Henkin.A.B.(2006). Exploring associations between employee empowerment and interpersonal trust in managers. Journal of Management Development,25 (2), 101-117.

    Nykodym.N., Simonetti.J.L., Nielsen.W.R., & Welling.B. (1994). Employee Empowerment. Empowerment in Organizations, 2 (3), 45-55.

    Pastor.J.(1996). Empowerment: what it is and what it is not. Empowerment in Organizations,4(2) , 5–7.

    Samat.N., Ramayah.T., & Saad.N.M. (2006). TQM practices, service quality, and market orientation some empirical evidence from a developing country. Management Research News ,29(11), 713-728.

    Spreitzer.G.M. (1995). Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation. The Academy of Management Journal, 38(5 ) ,1442-1465.

    Val.M.P.D., & Lloyd.B. (2003).Measuring Empowerment. Leadership and organization development journal,24(2),102-108.

    Helping Material for solution

    While most of the international literature uses the terms training and development, the South Africa literature tends to use the term, skills development. However, for the purposes of this report, the assumption is that training and development and skills development mean the same thing.

    Skills development is a priority issue globally and South Africa is no exception to this phenomenon. Several studies have been conducted into skills development and its importance to human resources development. It is noted by Nel et al (2001:43 5), that education and training has been the most powerful lever for improving both individual opportunity and the institutional competitiveness of countries worldwide.

    In relation to the above-mentioned points, it is important to understand the concepts of education, training and development.

    Nel et al (2001:467), describe education as the activities aimed at providing knowledge, skills, moral values and understanding required in the normal course of life.

    According to Nel et al (2001:467), training and development are defined as the factors that guide an individual and prepare him or her to perform specific activities as directed by the job they occupy. Training and development are essentially learning experiences in that they seek a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job (Nel et al, 2001:467).

    Furthermore, Nel et al (2001:467), state that training is a planned process which is aimed at modifying attitude, knowledge or skills behaviour and is directed at improving an employee's work performance. It is important that training is results-oriented and is measurable in terms of the organisation's requirements. To this end training must make a real contribution to improving the goal achievement and the internal efficiency of the organisation (Nel at al, 2001:467)

    On the other hand, Nel at al (2001:468), point out that the development focuses on future jobs within the organisation. It refers to the acquiring of new skills and abilities as the individual's career progresses. Therefore, development pertains to the development opportunities within a job for a specific employee, with reference to that individual's personal growth and goals.

    Desimone et al (2002:11), describe human resources development as the integrated use of training and development, organisation development and career development to improve individual, group and organisational effectiveness. Human resources development also takes strategic management decisions into account.

    Nel et al (2001:436), point out that in order for training to be successful and to yield positive returns it is important that training and education policies be shaped within the prevailing macro-social and economic circumstances as well as the national strategic vision of a particular country. Strategic management involves decisions and actions that aim to provide a competitively superior fit with the external environment and enhance the long run performance of the organisation (Desimone et al, 2002:12). This supports the point by Desimone et al (2002:12), that the external environment is important in considering human resources development.

    In the South African context, the country has undergone profound socio-economic transformation in that old apartheid structures have been dismantled and have been replaced by egalitarian and democratic structures (Department of Labour, 2002:1). These changes have brought about changes in the economy of the country, which has migrated from activities based in primary sectors such as agriculture to more knowledge-based activities, which require a high level of skills (Department of Labour, 2002:1). According to the Department of Labour (2002:1), the legacy of apartheid denied access to quality education to a vast majority of the population, therefore resulting in a large sector of the population lacking key competencies required to meet the challenges of the economic change within the country's macro environment. It is against this background that the country needs to identify areas of skills shortages and put plans in place to develop and improve the quality of the human resources within the country so as to transform the economy from a low skills base to one that is committed to life long learning. The South African government fully appreciates

    the need for skills development and has committed itself to human resources development strategies in an effort to be more responsive to the education and training needs of South Africans and to make South Africa more competitive (Department of Labour, 2002:1).

    Organizational Learning

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of personal characteristics (goal orientation) and contextual characteristics (organizational learning culture and developmental feedback) on employees' career satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention.

    Design/methodology/approach – Subjects were drawn from four Fortune Global 500 companies in Korea. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to explain the variance in outcome variables.

    Findings – The results indicate that career satisfaction is predicted by organizational learning culture and performance goal orientation. Organizational learning culture, developmental feedback, and learning goal orientation are the significant predictors of organizational commitment. Finally, organizational learning culture, career satisfaction, and organizational commitment turn out to be the predictors of turnover intention.

    Practical implications – By enhancing organizational learning culture and by considering goal orientation, human resource development/organization development practitioners could play important roles in improving organizational commitment, in career satisfaction, and in decreasing turnover.

    Originality/value – The theoretical contribution of this paper lies in its inclusive approach encompassing both the personal and contextual factors (such as organizational learning, leadership, and personality) on career and organizational commitment research. It is an interesting finding that while performance goal is associated with career satisfaction, learning goal orientation is related with organizational commitment.

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