Discuss the similarities among quantities and qualitative research in data collection analysis, and interpretation 3
What is the purpose of focus group discussion 3

How would you define reliability and validity 3

Write a note on any three verities of non reactive observation 5

Write a note on formal focus group 5
Formal groups are formally constituted, that is these are organized in advance by inviting the selected individuals to participate in the discussion on a specific issue. They are structured groups brought together in which the participants are expected to have similar background, age, sex, education, religion, or similar experiences. Similarity in background is likely to make them comfortable where they could express their viewpoint frankly and freely. If the big boss and his junior officer working in an organization together participate in an FGD, the junior officer may not be able to express his or her opinion freely in the presence of his/her boss. Similarly, in some situations the children may experience some inhibitions in expressing their views on a sensitive issue in the presence of their parents. A lot depends on the kind of issue that is to be discussed.
The group is guided by a moderator/facilitator. The participants address a specific issue (talk freely, agree or disagree among them) within a specified time in accordance with clearly spelled out rules of procedure

What is Cleaning Data?
The final stage in the coding process is the error checking and verification, or “data cleaning” stage, which is a check to make sure that all codes are legitimate. Accuracy is extremely important when coding data. Errors made when coding or entering data into a computer threaten the validity of measures and cause misleading results. A researcher who has perfect sample, perfect measures, and no errors in gathering data, but who makes errors in the coding process or in entering data into a computer, can ruin a whole research project.

What is the different between Regression Analysis & Replication pattern?
The replication pattern is the easiest to understand. It is when the partials replicate or reproduce the same relationship that existed in the bivariate table before considering the control variable. It means that the control variable has no effect.
Regression analysis includes any techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.

Define one-shot case study design?
One-shot Case Study Design: Also called the one-group posttest-only design, the one-shot case study design has only one group, a treatment, and a posttest. Because it is only one group, there is no random assignment. For example, a researcher shows a group of students a horror film, then measures their attitude with a questionnaire. A weakness of this design is that it is difficult to say for sure that the treatment caused the dependent variable. If subjects were the same before and after the treatment, the researcher would not know it.

How will u prepare Focus Group Discussion for ladies "Cosmetics Preference”?

What is the observation in verities of Non-Reactive Observation?
Non-reactive measures are varied, and researchers have been creative in inventing indirect ways to measures behaviors. Because the measures have little in common except being non-reactive, they are best learned through examples like:
Physical Traces

How researchers evaluate quality of Evidence?
Accuracy of evidence may be looked at for three things: the implicit conceptual framework, particular details that are required and empirical generalizations. H-C researcher evaluates alternative interpretations of evidence and looks for “silences,” of cases where the evidence fails to address an event, topic, or issue.

Purpose of FGD (3 M)
The Purpose of FGD
The purpose of an FGD is to obtain in-depth information on concepts, perceptions, and ideas of the group. An FGD aims to be more than a question-answer interaction (Focus group interview is different). Here the idea is that group members discuss the topic among themselves.

Importance of Instrumentation Effect in Experimental Research
Instrumentation effects are yet another source of threat to internal validity. These might arise because of a change in the measuring instrument between pretest and posttest, and not because of the instrument’s differential impact at the end. For example, in a weight loss experiment, the springs on the scale weaken during the experiment, giving lower readings in the posttest. A change in the wording of questions (may be done to avoid testing effects), change in interviewers, or change in other procedures to measure the dependent variable can cause instrumentation effect.

Diff b/w Proportionate & Disproportionate stratified sampling
If the number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is in proportion to the relative population size of the stratum, the sample is proportionate stratified sampling. Sometime, however, a disproportionate stratified sample will be selected to ensure an adequate number of sampling units in every stratum In a disproportionate, sample size for each stratum is not allocated in proportion to the population size, but is dictated by analytical considerations.

4) Is Reactivity threat to Experimental validity? Explain (5 M)
Reactivity: A Threat to External Validity:
If cause-effect relationships are found they might not be generalizable to other settings or situations if the effects found only occurred as an effect of studying the situation.
A pretest might increase or decrease a subject's sensitivity or responsiveness to the experimental variable. Indeed, the effect of pretest to subsequent tests has been empirically substantiated
The Hawthorn Effect, a specific kind of reactivity to the experimental situation is a good example in this respect. The experiment was conducted in the Hawthorn Electric Company where the performance of the participants was supposed to change due to the change in the environmental conditions i.e. improvement on the environmental conditions will have a positive effect on thee performance. The researchers modified many aspects of the working conditions and measured productivity.

5) Treatment of independent variable with example (5 M)
In most experiments, a researcher creates a situation or enters into an ongoing situation, then modifies it. The treatment (or the stimulus or manipulation) is what the researcher modifies. The term comes from medicine, in which a physician administers a treatment to patients; the physician intervenes in a physical or psychological condition to change it. It is the independent variable or the combination of independent variables.
In experiments, for example, the researcher creates a condition or situation. Look at “the degree of fear or anxiety”; the levels are high-fear or low-fear situation. Instead of asking the subjects, as we do in surveys, whether they are fearful, experimenter puts the subjects into either in a high-fear or low-fear situation. They measure the independent variable by manipulating conditions so that some subjects feel a lot of fear and others feel little.

6) Diff b/w Letter of Transmittal and Authorization (5 M)
7) Research was given and predict the review (5 M)

Briefly explain the importance of Secondary Data in research?
Secondary data refer to information gathered by someone other than the researcher conducting the present study. Secondary data are usually historical, already assembled, and do not require access to respondents or subjects. Many types of information about the social and behavioral world have been collected and are available to the researcher.

How would you deal with items which are not responded?
Specific decision rules for handling this problem should be meticulously outlined in the editorial instructions. In many situations the decision rule will be to do nothing with the unanswered question: the editor merely indicates in item non response by writing a message instructing the coder to record a “missing value” or blank as the response. However, in case the response is necessary then the editor uses the plug value. The decision rule may to “plug in” an average or neutral value in each case of missing data. A blank response in an interval scale item with a mid point would be to assign the mid point in the scale as the response to that particular item. Another way is to assign to the item the mean value of the responses of all those who have responded to that particular item. Another choice is to give the item the mean of the responses of this particular respondent to all other questions measuring thee variables. Another decision rule may be to alternate the choice of the response categories used as plug values (e.g. “yes” the first time, “no” the second time, “yes” the third time, and so on).

What is bracketing with regard to historical comparative research?
H-C researchers attempt to read primary sources with the eyes and assumptions of a contemporary who lived in the past. This means “bracketing,” or holding back knowledge of subsequent events and modern values. “If you do not read the primary sources with an open mind and an intention to get inside the minds of the writings and look at things the way they saw them, you are wasting time.” For example, when reading a source produced by a slaveholder, moralizing against slavery or faulting the author for not seeing its evil is not worthwhile. The H-C researcher holds back moral judgments and becomes a moral relativist while reading primary sources. He or she must think and believe like subjects under study, discover how they performed in their own eyes

Azeem was conducting a study/research in a mental institution. The mental institution got his signatures on a non disclosure document, according to that he would not disclose any information related to the institution to any outsider. During his research, he discovered that the patients were mistreated and abused by the staff. He had two choices: to leave the study and call for investigation or to keep quite and continue with the study for several months, publish the findings afterwards and then advocate an end to abuse.
What type of ethical dilemma it is; confidentiality or deception? Justify your opinion. Give your suggestions to the researcher that what should he do in such a situation?

Historical-Comparative research focuses on some factors, list down those factors?
Historical-Comparative research focuses on:
• Tracing the development of social forms (patterns) overtime as well as its broad its broad historical processes, and
• Comparing those forms and its developmental processes across cultures (countries/nations).

Being a researcher if you are going to draw a Table, what parts you would include in the Table? Name any six parts of the Table.
1. Give each table a number.
2. Give each table a title, which names variables and provides background information
3. Label the row and columns variables and give name to each of the variable categories.
4. Include the totals of the columns and rows. These are called marginals. They equal the univariate frequency distribution for the variable.
5. Each number or place that corresponds to the intersection of a category for each variable is a cell of a table.
6. The numbers with the labeled variable categories and the totals are called the body of the table.
7. If there is missing information, report the number of missing cases near the table to account for all original cases.

How topic can be selected from secondary analysis? 3
Selecting Topic for Secondary Analysis
Search through the collections of information with research question and variables in mind, and then reassemble the information in new ways to address the research question.
It is difficult to specify topics that are appropriate for existing statistics research because they are so varied. In fact, existing statistics projects may not neatly fit into a deductive model of research design.
Thus existing statistics research is appropriate when a researcher wants to test hypotheses involving variables that are also in official reports of social, economic and political conditions. For example, existing statistics can be used by researcher who wants to see whether unemployment and crime rates are associated in 100 cities across a 20 year period.

What are some unique features of historical comparative research which distinguish it from other forms research? 3
1) The evidence of H-C research is usually limited and indirect. Direct observation and involvement by a researcher is often impossible.
2) Second, H-C researchers interpret the evidence. Different people looking at the same evidence often ascribe different meanings to it, so a researcher must reflect on evidence.
3) Another feature is that a researcher’s reconstruction of the past or another culture is easily distorted.
4) H-C researcher does not use deterministic approach. H-C research takes an approach to causality that is more contingent than determinist.
5) H-C researcher has the ability to shift between a specific context and a generalized context for purposes of comparison.

What is the interpretation effect and its purposes?
The purpose of interpretation is to explain the meanings of the data so that we can make inferences and formulate conclusions. Therefore, interpretation refers to making inferences pertinent to the meaning and implications of the research investigation and drawing conclusions. In order for interpretation, the data have to be meaningfully analyzed. For purposes of analysis the researchers use statistics.

Describe advantages of cluster sampling. 5
• Feasibility: Again, as I mentioned before, cluster sampling is such a method of probabilistic sampling that takes into account large populations. Since these groups are so large, deploying any other sampling technique would be very difficult task. Cluster sampling is very feasible when you are dealing with large population.
• Economy: The two major concerns of expenditure when it comes to sampling are traveling and listing. They are greatly reduced when it comes to cluster sampling. For example: Compiling research information about every house hold in city would be a very difficult, where as compiling information about various blocks of the city will be easier. Here traveling as well as listing efforts will be greatly reduced.
• Reduced Variability: When you are considering the estimates by any other method of probabilistic sampling, reduced variability in results are observed. This may not be an ideal situation every time. Increased variability in results is observed in cluster sampling.

Briefly discuss the importance of interaction effect in the experimental research with the help of example. 5
The effect of two variables together is likely to be greater than the individual effect of each put together. The idea of an interaction effect is familiar, especially in the area of medicine or illness. As an example, imagine that for a given population of 100 persons, all of the same age and sex, it was found that if all 100 smoked cigarettes the effect would be a lung cancer rate of 20 percent. Assume that for an identical group of 100 persons who did not smoke but lived in a smoggy environment, 10 percent would get lung cancer. Now consider a third identical group of 100 persons all of whom smoke and also live in a smoggy environment. The additive effect of both smoking and smog would be 20 percent plus 10 percent, or a total of 30 percent (30 people) having cancer. However, imagine that an actual medical survey of the population shows a cancer rate of 37 percent among persons experiencing both smoking and smog. This extra 7 percent can be computed residually as:
Interaction Effect = Total effect – (smoking effect + smog effect) = 37 percent
= 37 percent - (20 percent + 10 percent)
= 37 percent - 30 percent
= 7 percent

Describe the tow forms of scientific research method and explain their importance. 5
Scientific research: This method takes an idea or topic and uses the application of science to determine the answers to questions, typically through experimentation. This type of research method is very hands on and relies on result over documentation
Types of Research Used in the Scientific Method
There are two basic types of research associated with the scientific method.
Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is based on collecting facts and figures. This type research is common in biology.
Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is based on collecting opinions and attitudes. This type research is common in the social sciences.

Researcher uses the quotations in text while writing literature review during research. You are asked to explain the method to use quotation in text following APA style. 5
Quotations should be given exactly as they appear in the source. The original wording, punctuation, spellings, and italics must be preserved even if they are erroneous. The citation of the source of direct quotation should always include the page number(s) as well as the reference.
Use double quotation marks for quotations in the text. Use single quotation marks to identify the material that was enclosed in double quotation marks in the original source. If you want to emphasize certain words in the quotation, underline them and immediately after the underlined words, insert within brackets the words: italics added. Use three ellipsis points (…) to indicate that you have omitted material from the original source.
If the quotation is more than 40 words, set in a free-standing style starting on a new line and indenting the left margin a further five spaces. Type the entire quotation double spaced on the new margin, indenting the first line of paragraphs from the new margin.
Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide

Q 1 - What do you know about pretest and posttest experimental and control group design? 3 Marks
Pretest and Posttest Experimental and Control Group Design: Two groups, one control group and the other experimental group, are formed randomly. Both the groups are exposed to pretest and posttest. The experimental group is exposed to treatment while the control group is not. Measuring the difference between the differences in the post- and pretests of the two groups would give the net effects of the treatment.

Q 2 - What is the method of constructing percentage tables? 3 Marks
It is to construct a percentage table, but there are ways to make it look professional.
1. Give each table a number.
2. Give each table a title, which names variables and provides background information
3. Label the row and columns variables and give name to each of the variable categories.
4. Include the totals of the columns and rows. These are called marginal. They equal the unvaried frequency distribution for the variable.
5. Each number or place that corresponds to the intersection of a category for each variable is a cell of a table.
6. The numbers with the labeled variable categories and the totals are called the body of the table.
7. If there is missing information, report the number of missing cases near the table to account for all original cases.

Q 3 - Explain case control studies in focus group discussion? 3 Marks

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Q 4 - What do we meant by Time dimension in research? In what broad types research can be divided according to time? 5 Marks
Time Dimension
Do we make the observations more or less at one time or over a long period, former called as cross-sectional studies and the latter as longitudinal studies. While planning the strategy for data collection the time dimension may be an important component.
Cross-Sectional Studies are carried out once and represent a snapshot of one point in time. Data are collected just once, perhaps over a period of days or weeks or months, in order to answer the research question.
Longitudinal Studies are repeated over an extended period. Such studies, as when data on the dependent variable are gathered at two or more points in time to answer the research question, are called longitudinal. Longitudinal studies can be panel studies and cohort studies which were discussed earlier.

Q 5 - What are the different ethical issues related to validity? 5 Marks
Basic epidemiology - Google Books

Q 6 - how would you explain the scope of experimental research? 5 Marks
Experimental research builds on the principles of positivist approach more directly than do the other research techniques. Researchers in the natural sciences (e.g. chemistry and physics), related applied fields (e.g. engineering, agriculture, and medicines) and the social sciences conduct experiments. The logic that guides an experiment on plant growth in biology or testing a metal in engineering is applied in experiments on human social behavior. Although it is most widely used in psychology, the experiment is found in education, criminal justice, journalism, marketing, nursing, political science, social work, and sociology.
The purpose of experimental research is to allow the researcher to control the research situation so that causal relationships among variables may be evaluated. The experimenter, therefore, manipulates a single variable in an investigation and holds constant all other, extraneous variables. (Events may be controlled in an experiment in a way that is not possible in a survey.) The goal of the experimental design is the confidence that it gives the researcher that his experimental treatment is the cause of the effect he measures.

Q 7 - How would you differentiate letter of transmittal and letter of authorization? 5 Marks
Letter of Transmittal: This element is included in relatively formal and very formal reports. Its purpose is to release or deliver the report to the recipient. It also serves to establish some rapport between the reader and the writer. This is one part of the formal report where a personal, or even a slightly informal, tone should be used.
Letter of Authorization: This is a letter to the researcher approving the project, detailing who has responsibility for the project and indicating what resources are available to support it. The letter not only shows who sponsored the research but also delineates the original request.
Researcher would not write this letter. In many situations, referring to the letter of authorization in the letter of transmittal is sufficient. If so, the letter of authorization need not be included in the report. In case the letter has to be included, exact copy of the original may be reproduced.

63 – Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative data (3 Marks)
Quantitative research focuses on numbers or quantities. Quantitative studies have results that are based on numeric analysis and statistics. Often, these studies have many participants. It is not unusual for there to be over a thousand people in a quantitative research study. It is ideal to have a large number of participants because this gives analysis more statistical power.
Qualitative research studies are focused on differences in quality, rather than differences in quantity. Results are in words or pictures rather than numbers. Qualitative studies usually have fewer participants than quantitative studies because the depth of the data collection does not allow for large numbers of participants.

64- Define Reliability and Validity (3 Marks)
• The degree of consistency between two measures of the same thing
• The measure of how stable, dependable, trustworthy, and consistent a test is in measuring the same thing each time
• Validity is the ability of an instrument (for example measuring an attitude) to measure what it is supposed to measure.
• The degree to which they accomplish the purpose for which they are being used.

65- How would u explain Case Control studies in focus group discussion? (3 Marks)
Case Control studies
It is also possible to select two groups (taking them as cases), one with an effect (study group) and the other without effect (control group). Both the cases are similar except for the effect. One could look at the case of Manga Mandi village, where, a few years back, deformities in the bones of children were observed in one part of the village. Here one could explore the totality of the background of affected and unaffected parts of the locality, each being treated as a unit. One could develop hypothesis by having an in-depth analysis of the affected and unaffected parts.

66- describe the types of Observation you would use, the field notes you would develop, and some general principles you would follow to ensure successful data collection. (5 Marks)
Observing and collecting data: Watch, listen, and collect quality data. A great deal of what field researchers do in the field is to pay attention, watch, and listen carefully. They use all the senses, noticing what is seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched. The researcher becomes an instrument that absorbs all sources of information.
Most field research data are in the form of field notes. Good notes are the brick and mortar of field research. Full field notes can contain maps, diagrams, photographs, interviews, tape recordings, videotapes, memos, objects from the field, notes jotted in the field, and detailed notes written away from the field. A field researcher expects to fill many notebooks, or the equivalent in computer memory. He or she may spend more time writing notes than being in the field.

67- What do you know about Number and duration in focus group discussion (5
Number and duration of sessions: The number of focus group sessions to be conducted depends upon project needs, resources, and whether new information is still coming from the sessions (that is, whether contrasting views from various groups in the community are still emerging).
For duration, a focus group session typically lasts up to an hour and a half. Generally the first session with a particular type of group is longer than the following ones because all of the information is new.

68- What do u know about Statistical Control (5 Marks)
In non-experimental research, a researcher controls for alternative explanations with statistics. He or she measures possible alternative explanations with control variables, and then examines the control variables with multivariate tables and statistics that help him or her to decide whether a bivariate relationship is spurious. They also show the relative size of the effect of multiple independent variables on dependent variable.
Statistical control is a key idea in advanced statistical techniques. A measure of association like the correlation co-efficient only suggests a relationship. Until a researcher considers control variables, the bivariate relationship could be spurious.

69. How Theoretical framework helps to deduce hypothesis, describe?(5 Marks)