Subjective Questions: CS-507

Q1: How ERD is beneficial to system designing? marks (2)

Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)
Another diagrammatical tool used in system design is ERD.
The first stage of information system design uses these models during the requirements analysis to describe information needs or the type of information that is to be stored in a database. The data modeling technique can be used to describe any ontology (i.e. an overview and classifications of used terms and their relationships) for a certain area of interest. In the case of the design of an information system that is based on a database, the conceptual data model is, at a later stage (usually called logical design), mapped to a logical data model, such as the relational model; this in turn is mapped to a physical model during physical design.

Q2: Differentiate between operational feasibility and behavioral feasibility (3)

Operational Feasibility – compliance and adjustability with the way organization works with attitude to change or chains of command.
• Can the input data be collected for the system?
• Is the output usable?
Behavioral feasibility – What impact will the system have on the user’s quality of working life?
• Reduction is job stress
• Job satisfaction
• Quality of output by employees
Q3: What are the subsystems of manufacturing information system list down (5)

Subsystems of MIS:
1- Raw Material Procurement Sub-System
2- Inventory Sub System
3- Production Sub System
4- Maintenance & Scheduling Sub System
5- Quality Sub system
6- Costing Sub System
7- Order Processing Sub System

Q4: Why prototypes are used and discuss its advantages (3)
In many fields, there is great uncertainty as to whether a new design will actually do what is desired. New designs often have unexpected problems. A prototype is built to test the function of the new design before starting production of a product. Building the full design is often expensive and can be time-consuming. A prototype allows manufacturers to rapidly and inexpensively test the parts of the design that are most likely
to have problems, solve those problems, and then build the full design.
21.3 Advantages of Prototype

• Prototypes may be easily changed or even discarded.
• Prototyping may improve communication between and among developers and customers
• Users may be more satisfied with systems developed using prototyping.
• A prototype may provide the proof of concept necessary to attract funding.
• Early visibility of the prototype may help management assess progress.
• Prototypes may demonstrate progress at an early stage of development.
• Prototypes may provide early training for future users of the system.
• Prototyping may prevent unpleasant surprises by calling attention to incomplete or inconsistent requirements, or to missing functionality.
• Prototyping may produce some useful deliverables even if the project runs out of time or money.
• Prototyping may reduce misunderstandings between and among developers and customers.
• Prototyping may save on initial maintenance costs because, In effect, customers are doing "acceptance testing" all along the way.
• Systems produced through prototyping may be judged easier to learn and easier to use.

Q5: Describe the situation in which Spiral Model should be used? (5 Marks)

The spiral model, also known as the spiral lifecycle model, is a systems development lifecycle (SDLC) model used in information technology (IT). This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. The spiral model is favored for large, expensive, and complicated projects.
It is used in large scale organization like multi national companies where there is large setup of system where the objective to achieve the targeted goals and where there is risk element involve with a greater probability.
Following are some other considerations as well:

• Difficult to convince some customers that the evolutionary approach is controllable
• Needs considerable risk assessment
• If a risk is not discovered, problems will surely occur
• Determine Objectives

Q6: Why do we need system analyst? (2)

Systems analysts work as a link between Business people, & Computer Programmers. Business People may define the business to be computerized, i.e. establish scope of computerization. However, they may not fully understand the capabilities and limitations of modern information technology.
Computer programmers apply information technology to build information systems which solves these problems but need not fully understand the business usages they are computerizing or supporting.
Systems Analysts due to their expertise in development, knowledge of business processes, awareness of industry best practices, bridge the gap by translating the scope of computerization into how the systems will handle the transactional flows and the relationship between the various aspects of the business for the programmers whilst keeping the overall objectives and requirements, both corporate and IT related in perspective.

Q7: What do you understand by TQM? Identify tools that can be used to promote and implement TQM? (3)

TQM is a set of management and control activities which focus on quality assurance.

There are certain Graphical tools used to implement and promote TQM. For instance
1. Histogram
2. Pareto Analysis
3. Cause & Effect Diagram

Q8: Discuss the second phase of spiral model along with the steps it involved (5)

1. A preliminary design is created for the new system. This phase is the most important part of "Spiral Model". In this phase all possible (and available) alternatives which can help in developing a cost effective project are analyzed and strategies to use them are decided. This phase has been added specially in order to identify and resolve all the possible risks in the project development. If risks indicate any kind of uncertainty in requirements, prototyping may be used to proceed with the available data and find out possible solution in order to deal with the potential changes in the requirements.

Q9: Why does a business need social CRM? (5)

Reasons for adopting CRM
• Customers now prefer to execute transaction in an electronic environment through online-trading.
Also the establishment of customer services centers has also removed the inconvenience to access vendor’s physical locations.
• Due to absence of physical contact, companies are curious to keep a soft touch in an efficient manner.
This requires keeping a customer-wise online track of past correspondence and transactions.
• CRM reduces cost of sales and distribution by
• Targeting advertising to customers to increase the probability that an offer is accepted.
• Using web applications to decrease the number of direct sales people and distribution channels needed
• Managing customer relationships rather than manage products (a change in marketing)
• CRM minimize customer support costs by
• Making information available to customer service representatives so they can answer any query
• Automating the call centre so that representatives have direct access to customer history and preferences and therefore can cross-sell
Q10: What is Spiral Model? (3)

SPIRAL is an iterative approach to system development. The spiral lifecycle model is a combination of the classic waterfall model and aspects of risk analysis. This model is very appropriate for large and complex Information Systems. The spiral model emphasizes the need to go back and reiterate earlier steps a number of times as the project progresses. It's actually a series of short waterfall cycles, each producing an early prototype representing a part of the entire project. It is a circular view of the software lifecycle as opposed to the linear view of the waterfall approach. It can incorporate other models in its various developmental phases.
Q11: What is the basic issue of CRM? (3)
CRM Issues
• Customer Privacy
Customer privacy is an important issue in CRM. CRM deals with large amounts of customer data through various touch points and communication channels. The individual firm is thus caught in an ethical dilemma – collecting as much information as possible but still respecting limits for personal privacy.
• Software issues
There are little standardized technologies and protocols for CRM implementation in the market.
Vendors publish new versions of CRM software as frequently as they can thus adding to client’s expenses. CRM software requires highly integrated environment for high productivity, which is rarely available.

Q12: What are the duties of system analyst? (5)

Systems analysts work as a link between Business people, & Computer Programmers. Business People may define the business to be computerized, i.e. establish scope of computerization. However, they may not fully understand the capabilities and limitations of modern information technology.
Computer programmers apply information technology to build information systems which solves these problems but need not fully understand the business usages they are computerizing or supporting.
Systems Analysts due to their expertise in development, knowledge of business processes, awareness of industry best practices, bridge the gap by translating the scope of computerization into how the systems will handle the transactional flows and the relationship between the various aspects of the business for the programmers whilst keeping the overall objectives and requirements, both corporate and IT related in perspective.

Q13: Define different phases of decision making process.

Phases for Decision Making
Any deviation from the norm should be reported as an exception for managers’ attention. As it is the case with “Debtors Aging Analysis”. (Debtors Aging analysis is the stratification of trade receivables in accordance of period of time since they have been due.)
Intelligence: Identifying the problems occurring in an organization. MIS is the primary source for the managers to be aware of red-alerts.
Design: Once the debtors have been analyzed on the basis of pattern of collection, options can be generated to improve collection rates
Choice: Now a selection has to be made which single strategy or combination of strategies should be implemented.
Implementation: Now the stage comes of communicating the policy approved to the interested and relevant.
Monitoring: Once the decision has been implemented, the effects and responses should be monitored. The quality of decisions can be judged only once after they have been implemented. Monitoring helps in evaluating the quality of decisions that have been made.
Q14: Data integration:

Data integration involves combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of these data.[1] This process becomes significant in a variety of situations both commercial (when two similar companies need to merge their databases) and scientific (combining research results from different bioinformatics repositories, for example). Data integration appears with increasing frequency as the volume and the need to share existing data explodes.[2] It has become the focus of extensive theoretical work, and numerous open problems remain unsolved. In management circles, people frequently refer to data integration as "Enterprise Information Integration" (EII

Q15: Decision making in the context of IS? 2marks

Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives.
Cognitive process is the mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.
• Every decision-making process produces a final choice. It can be an action or an opinion.
• It begins when we need to do something but we do not know what.
• A decision-making is a reasoning process which can be rational or irrational, and can be based on explicit assumptions or tacit assumptions.

Q16:What is difference between procedures and system? 2marks
Systems vs. Procedures:
Procedure is a defined set of instructions aimed at describing how to proceed in achieving a pre-defined milestone/target.
Systems have collection of predefined procedures related to each other in a sequenced logical manner in order to collectively achieve the desired results. The system & procedures in all kinds of environment are subject to internal controls and checks that are necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the same.

Q17: Defines the logical and physical model in system design?

Physical Models
• Physical models are three dimensional representation of an entity (Object / Process). Physical models used in the business world include scale models of shopping centers and prototypes of new automobiles.
The physical model serves a purpose that cannot be fulfilled by the real thing, e.g. it is much less expensive for shopping centre investors and automakers to make changes in the designs of their physical models than to the final product themselves.

Q18: What are the key tasks of the CRM model? 3marks

Key CRM Tasks
• Customer Identification -- Identifying customer through
• Marketing channels,
• Transactions,
• Interactions overtime,
• Customer Differentiation – Segregating customers, with respect to.
• Their lifestyles
• Attitudes
• Perception about Co.’s products
• Customer Interaction – Efforts made to retain customers for long-term profitability and relationship.
• Customization / Personalization
“Treat each customer uniquely” is the motto of the entire CRM process. Through the personalization process, the company can increase customer loyalty.

Q19: DFD process? 5marks

Data Flow Diagram
"A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system."
The purpose of data flow diagrams is to provide a linking bridge between users and systems developers.
The data flow diagrams are:
• Graphical, eliminating thousands of words;
• Hierarchical, showing systems at any level of detail; and
They have less jargon, allowing user understanding and reviewing.
Data flow diagrams facilitate users to understand how the system operates. DFD’s also help developers to better understand the system which helps in avoiding delays in proper designing, development, etc. of projects.

Q20: Why Intelligent Systems are developed? (5)

Knowledge Support Systems (KSS) / Intelligent Systems
These systems are used to automate the decision making process, due to its high-level-problem-solving support. KSS also has the ability to explain the line of reasoning in reaching a particular solution, which
DSS does not have.
Intelligent Systems
Knowledge systems are also called intelligent systems. The reason is that once knowledge system is up and running, it can also enable non experts to perform tasks previously done by experts. This amounts to automation of decision making process i.e. system runs independently of the person making decisions.

Q21: How data driven support system works? (2)

Sponsored Links

Data driven (DSS) uses large pool of data in major organizational systems. They help to extract information from large quantities of data stored. These system relay on data warehouses created from Transaction processing systems.
They use following techniques for data analysis:
• Online analytical processing
• Data Mining

Q22: Discuss types of MIS? (2)

• Operation support system
• Management support system
• Transaction processing system
• Process control system
• Enterprise collaboration system

Q23: Enlist the category of support system

Support systems can be classified into two categories
• Office automation systems
• Decision support systems

Q24: List down techniques in data warehouse (2)

Data Warehouse
• A data warehouse is a logical collection of information.
• It is gathered from many different operational databases used to create business intelligence that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks.
• It is primarily, a record of an enterprise's past transactional and operational information, stored in a database designed to favor efficient data analysis and reporting.
• The term data warehouse generally refers to the combination of many different databases across an entire enterprise.
• Data warehouses contain a wide variety of data that present a coherent picture of business conditions at a single point in time.
• Data warehouses are generally batch updated at the end of the day, week or some period. Its contents are typically historical and static and may also contain numerous summaries.

Q25: HRIS benefits? 5marks

The advantage of a Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in payroll is that it automates the entire payroll process by gathering and updating employee payroll data on a regular basisIn time and labor management a Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is advantageous because it lets human resource personnel apply new technologies to effectively gather and appraise employee time and work information. It lets an employee's information be easily tracked so that it can be assessed on a more scientific level whether an employee is performing to their full potential or not, and if there are any improvements that can be made to make an employee feel more secure.

By using a Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in employee benefits, the human resource department is able to keep better track of which benefits are being availed by which employee and how each employee is profiting from the benefits provided.

A Human Resource Information System (HRIS) also has advantages in HR management because it curtails time and cost consuming activities leading to a more efficient HR department. This system reduces the long HR paper trail that is often found in most HR divisions of companies and leads to more productive and conducive department on the whole.

Q26: What is typical information system that a decision support system gathers and discuss (2)

Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerized information system that supports business and organizational decision-making activities. A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from raw data, documents, personal knowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions.
Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present would be:
• Accessing all of your current information assets, including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data marts
• Comparative sales figures between one week and the next
• Projected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions
• The consequences of different decision alternatives, given past experience in a context that is described

Q27: A newly created organization will face unstructured problems. Why or why not. Justify? (5 Marks)

A newly formed organization may be taken as an unstructured organization due to lack of defined organizational structure, operating procedures. The question that a problem is structured or unstructured is not dependant on the organization being structured or unstructured. Even a highly structured organization can face novel and unprecedented problems.

Q28: Documents of the software developed step by step procedure. (3 Marks)

Software is constructed step by step in the same way a building is constructed. The products is designed, implemented, integrated and tested as a series of incremental builds, where a build consists of code pieces from various modules interacting together to provide a specific functional capability and testable as a whole.

Q29: What are the factors manufacturing information system included in manufacturing? (3 Marks)

Manufacturing Information Systems
It is an information system which deals with the
• Planning, development and maintenance of production facilities
• Establishment of Production goals
• Availability of production materials
• Scheduling

Q30: What is the logic system of the organization? (2 Marks)

At Fuzzy Logic Systems help organizations meet their online goals through professional website design, development, tracking, and business process integration.
Logic Systems is a rapidly growing organization, in terms of both people and customers. To keep up with this rapid pace of growth, Logic Systems is continuously seeking talented and focused individuals who can contribute significantly and be a part of this growth process.

To nurture the organization's talent base and especially, its varied skills set, and to encourage employees at all levels to give their best, Logic Systems has in place the best of professional HR practices. The company's HR policies take into consideration its diverse businesses and geographies.

The company prides itself in fostering a culturally integrated environment, placing high value on teamwork, integrity, creativity and excellence among its employees. An open environment fosters innovation and creative thinking; its corporate values encourage a work culture based on teamwork, recognition and rewards for accomplishments.

Q31: What does mean of this phrase “The investment in IT is costly and inflexible?” (2 Marks)

Means such investment is also monitored and controlled by the IT strategy. Hence any investment not supporting the business strategy would be futile

Q32: What would be the document of software project which is developed under the procedural development phase? (3)

The software project management plan document is prepared. By the project manager with the help of system analyst the objective of software project management is to enable the group of software engineers to work toward the common goal and completion of project.

Q33: What are strengths and weaknesses of rational man model? (3)

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Rational Decision Making Model
The main strength of a rational decision making model is that it provides structure and discipline to the decision making process. It helps ensure we consider the full range of factors relating to a decision, in a logical and comprehensive manner.

However, we should always remember that whilst the model indicates what needs to be done, it's often how things are done that characterizes effective decision making.

Paul C. Nutt's research illustrates that bad decisions were usually bad because two things were missing:

1. adequate participation of stakeholders in the decision making process;
2. Sufficient time spent generating a range of possible solutions.

Too often those who should have been involved weren't, and solutions were proposed and acted upon too quickly. Often with disastrous effects!

A second weakness arises if we attempt to use the model in isolation. This is particularly important where complex or important decisions are involved. The principle assumption of the rational decision making process is that human beings make rational decisions. However, there are numerous factors which determine our decisions, many of which are not rational. In many situations decisions have to be made with incomplete and insufficient information. Judgment, intuition, experience and knowledge all come together when making decisions. This critical aspect is further explored in our article: Intuition and Decision Making.

Regardless of any perceived weaknesses these models are essential tools. A rational decision making model can help us to make better decisions - and thus help us to be better managers.

Q34: You r a going to launch ABC firm which produce IT products, what will be your planning?
With a good product launch plan, it is necessary that you market and presell your product before the actual launch date. During this time, you must use as many methods of advertising as you can to get your message out. The internet has turned out to be the perfect medium for prelaunching successful product releases. Just put ads to your product on high traffic websites that are closely related to your target market. Remember, that a successful product launch plan always takes into account the target audience that it is marketing to.
You should always include attractive bonus offers with your product when you begin to come up with your product launch plan. Including bonuses and alluring offers with your product will improve the success.