FINALTERM EXAMINATION
Spring 2009
STA630- Research Methods

Marks: 80

Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is NOT an assumption of action research?

  • Action researchers have basic research skills to collect and analyze data.
  • All professionals need and want feedback on their performance.
  • Results enable the researchers to evaluate the performance of others.
  • Teachers are capable of assuming responsibility for their own professional growth.


Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements it TRUE for operational definition?

  • It is one that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
  • It is an abstract, theoretical definition of a concept
  • A definition of a concept in terms of specific and empirical measures.
  • It is one that refers to opera singers and their work.


Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements best defines hypothesis?

  • A quantitative study.
  • A tentative prediction of the results of the research.
  • A qualitative research design.
  • The operational definition of the study.


Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
When the research starts from the effects and tracing the reasons back in time, what does
it called?

  • Case study
  • Experiment
  • Observation studies
  • Historical comparitive research


Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The extent to which a test provides scores that are meaningful, appropriate, or useful is
referred to as;

  • Reliability
  • Accuracy
  • Internal validity
  • Validity


Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Mr. Hasan s son has applied to a high school in Florida, but the application was denied
solely on his low score on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). His son wants to attend
this school and contends his current grades and other standardized test scores speak well
to both his past work and future academic capability. Which of the following
characteristics of the ITBS is being questioned by this student?

  • Construct validity
  • Content validity
  • Predictive validity
  • Concurrent validity


Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Internal consistency estimates of reliability such as the KR-20 or Cronbach's alpha are
used more frequently than other estimates such as test-retest or parallel forms because
internal consistency estimates;

  • Are easily calculated.
  • Require only one administration of a test.
  • Are more accurate than all other types of estimates.
  • Are usually higher.


Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following functions is performed by the Odinal scale?

  • Categorize
  • Distance
  • Order
  • Unique origin


Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is measured by the Interval scale?

  • Order of the object
  • Magnitude of the object
  • Categorize the object
  • All of the given options


Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Following are the properties of nominal scale, except;

  • Least powerful
  • Suggest no order
  • Provide categorical information
  • Provide magnitude of object


Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
What is the difference between interval/ratio and ordinal variables?

  • Ordinal data can be rank ordered, but interval/ratio data cannot.
  • The distance between categories is equal across the range of interval/ration data.
  • Interval/ratio variables contain only two categories.
  • Ordinal variables have a fixed zero point, whereas interval/ratio variables do not.


Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A study design in which the researcher might create_______ to establish cause-and-effect
relationship is called Experimental Design.

  • An artificial setting, control some variables and manipulates the independent variable
  • A natural setting, control some variables and manipulates the dependent variables
  • An artificial setting, control some variables and manipulates the dependent variable
  • All of the given options


Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following would LEAST likely be a data source for an action research study
of "teachers' questioning techniques in social studies classes"?

  • Student questionnaires
  • Videotaping of classes
  • Students' standardized test scores
  • Classroom observation


Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Teachers are advised to predict the results of student attitudinal questionnaires, because;

  • It will help them decide if students answered truthfully.
  • It gives them a point of comparison against which to judge actual responses.
  • It will allow them to apply statistical procedures in analyzing results.
  • It helps them familiarize themselves with the questionnaires.


Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is an example of a question about normative standards and
values?

  • How many workers are employed at this plant?
  • What is your attitude towards the management at this plant?
  • Do you always cast your vote in trade union elections?
  • Are you aware of the main features of the European Union Directive for informing and consulting employees?


Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Questions that include negatives should be avoided because:

  • The respondent may miss out the negative word.
  • The respondent may be unsure how to answer if the question includes a double negative.
  • The respondent may be led by the question.
  • All of the given options.



Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Random assignment to treatment groups is characteristic of which kind of research?

  • Causal-comparative
  • Correlational
  • Experimental
  • Descriptive


Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is likely to happen if clear instructions are not given as to how the
respondent should answer the question?

  • Respondents may delete inappropriate answers rather than select appropriate ones.
  • Respondents may choose only one answer when they need to choose as many as apply.
  • Respondents may complete questions that are not relevant to them.
  • All of the given options.


Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is NOT an example of a problem with using social survey
research to investigate behavior?

  • Respondents tend to answer by giving the most socially desirable answer.
  • Respondents may inadvertently omit key terms in the question.
  • Respondents may not give an honest reply to what they see as a threatening question.
  • Respondents may be unwilling to reveal information as they believe they are likely to be identified.


Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
What is the main purpose of pilot testing?

  • To accumulate responses
  • To identify respondent
  • To identify potential problems
  • To evaluate the research


Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following sampling strategies was used when the three students with the
highest GPAs were selected?

  • Extreme case
  • Snowball
  • Maximum variation
  • Normal case


Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following best describes qualitative data analysis?

  • It begins after all the data has been collected.
  • It is an ongoing, cyclic process integrated into all phases of research.
  • It is an awkward, haphazard process.
  • It builds from abstraction to specific, concrete examples.


Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following represents the most general conceptualization in qualitative data
analysis?

  • Word
  • Topic
  • Category
  • Pattern


Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The control procedure that allows the researcher to determine the effect of the
independent variable and the control variable on the dependent variable both separately
and in combination is;

  • Analysis of covariance
  • Matching
  • Forming subgroups to represent all levels of the control variable
  • Randomization


Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following could NOT be a cause of variation in high school achievement?

  • Reading ability
  • Parental involvement
  • Teacher expectations
  • College attendance


Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In experimental research, what does a researcher manipulate?

  • At least one dependent variable
  • All variables
  • At least one independent variable
  • At least one independent variable and one dependent variable


Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In an experimental study, "the effects of inclusion on academic self-concept of children
with special needs", the researcher must control which of the following?

  • The selection of subjects but not their assignment to a treatment group.
  • The selection and assignment of subjects.
  • The assignment of subjects to a treatment group but not their selection.
  • Neither the selection nor assignment of subjects.


Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Ecological validity refers to:

  • The participants to whom results generalize
  • The instruments used to measure the independent and dependent variables
  • The internal validity of a study
  • The context to which results generalize


Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Many beginner researchers believe that research involves testing, treating, and testing
again . This is an example of:

  • Comparison group research
  • Quasi-experimental research
  • True experimental research
  • Pre-experimental research


Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Single-subject research is LEAST concerned with:

  • Clinical significance
  • Internal validity
  • Validity of measuring instruments
  • External validity


Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
On which component of his field notes did Mr. Majid focused when he expressed in his
notes his thoughts and ideas about what he observed?

  • Description
  • Reflection
  • Protocol
  • Formal data


Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In which section is the researcher allowed greater flexibility to express opinions, discuss
implications for educational practice, and suggest additional research?

  • Review of the literature
  • Significance of the study
  • Results
  • Discussion


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Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Determining the sample interval (represented by K), randomly selecting a number
between 1 to K, and including each K element in your sample are the steps for which
form of sampling?

  • Simple Random Sampling
  • Stratified Random Sampling
  • Systematic Sampling
  • Cluster sampling


Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A focus group session is ideally for;

  • 1 hour
  • 1 and half hour
  • 2 hours
  • More than 2 hours


Question No: 35 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify the effect
produced by which of the following?

  • Dependent variable
  • Extraneous variable
  • Independent variable
  • Confounding variable


Question No: 36 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is the process of identifying and classifying each item and giving
labels to each category?

  • Accretion
  • Count Behaviors
  • Intensity
  • Coding


Question No: 37 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
When do largest percentages form a pattern across cells?

  • If there is no relationship
  • If there is non linear relationship
  • If there is curvilinear relationship
  • If there is linear relationship


Question No: 38 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following elements is/are not included for structuring Observation in Non
reactive research?

  • Frequency
  • Intensity
  • Direction
  • Accretion


Question No: 39 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A census taker often collects data through which of the following?

  • Standardized tests
  • Interviews
  • Secondary data
  • Observations


Question No: 40 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
What is the particular advantage of secondary analysis to business students?

  • It is less challenging intellectually
  • It guarantees positive results
  • It is less expensive and less time consuming than primary analysis
  • It enables students to gain experience of the workplace


Question No: 41 ( Marks: 5 )
Defend the use of the term inductive to describe qualitative data analysis and
interpretation.

Question No: 42 ( Marks: 5 )
What are the main parts of a research report?

Question No: 43 ( Marks: 10 )
Many universities do not allow their students to conduct experimental research to fulfill
thesis or dissertation requirements. Provide a rationale for changing this practice,
acknowledging the limitations of experimental research, but also citing at least three
reasons that action research should be accepted.

Question No: 44 ( Marks: 10 )
A multination company ABC has launched a new tooth paste Cleanex in Pakistan.
After eight months the company wants to analyze the consumer satisfaction about their
tooth paste. For research purpose, develop questions for the following scenarios that can
be used in questionnaire.
See the consumer preference for tooth paste or tooth powder by using nominal scale.
i. See the consumer preference for Cleanex Tooth Paste by using ordinal scale.
ii. See the important characteristics of the Cleanex Tooth Paste by using interval scale
so that the company can modify its strengths and improve its weaknesses.
iii. Check the monthly consumption of the tooth paste by using the ratio scale.

Question No: 45 ( Marks: 10 )
What is the need of a trivariate table? How can we construct trivariate table and what
does this table signify?