30. This type of validity refers to the ability to generalize the results of a study across settings.
a. Temporal validity
b. Internal validity
c. Ecological validity
d. External validity
31. Which is not a direct threat to the internal validity of a research design?
a. History
b. Testing
c. Sampling error
d. Differential selection
32. Alteration in performance due to being aware that one is participating in a study is known as ______.
a. Operationalism
b. Reactivity
c. Temporal validity
d. Mortality
33. The idea that the more times a research finding is shown with different sets of people, the more confidence we can place in the finding and in generalizing beyond the original participants is known as ___________.
a. Naturalistic generalization
b. Methods generalization
c. Data triangulation
d. Replication logic



The scientific method is preferred over other ways of knowing because it is more;
Reliable
Systematic
Accurate
All of the given options

An operational definition is:
One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
A definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical measures.
One that refers to opera singers and their work.

If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain their merit and worth, he is likely conducting which type of research?
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Experimental

What is the basis of the Scientific Method?
To test hypotheses in conditions those are condusive to its success.
To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions that challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

Which of the following is a concept?
Leadership.
Total Quality Management.
Human Resource Management.
All of the given options

Meanings attached to a concept create problems of measurements.
Unambiguous
Vague
Clear
Dictionary

To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of----------------------
Tradition
Inductive logic
Deductive logic
The scientific

Why, as scientists, do we not want to rely on authority for explanations?
Those in authority are often wrong.
Those in authority cannot be challenged.
Those in authority rely too much on objective information.
Those in authority often have no common sense.

If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory

A concept is a generalized idea about------ .
A class of objects
Attributes
Occurrences
All of the given

Under which of the following research method is not applicable?
Health care
Business
Government offices
Imaginary worlds

1- Hypothesis refers to
A. The outcome of an experiment
B. A conclusion drawn from an experiment
C. A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
D. A tentative statement about the relationship
2- Statistics is used by researchers to
A. Analyze the empirical data collected in a study
B. Make their findings sound better
C. Operationally define their variables
D. Ensure the study comes out the way it was intended
3- A literature review requires
A. Planning
B. Good & clear writing
C. Lot of rewriting
D. All of the above
4- A literature review is based on the assumption that
A. Copy from the work of others
B. Knowledge accumulates and learns from the work of others
C. Knowledge disaccumulates
D. None of the above option


5- A theoretical framework
A. Elaborates the r/s among the variables
B. Explains the logic underlying these r/s
C. Describes the nature and direction of the r/s
D. All of the above
6- Which of the following statement is not true?
A. A research proposal is a document that presents a plan for a project
B. A research proposal shows that the researcher is capable of successfully conducting the proposed research project
C. A research proposal is an unorganized and unplanned project
D. A research proposal is just like a research report and written before the research project
7- Preliminary data collection is a part of the
A. Descriptive research
B. Exploratory research
C. Applied research
D. Explanatory research
8- Conducting surveys is the most common method of generating
A. Primary data
B. Secondary data
C. Qualitative data
D. None of the above



9- After identifying the important variables and establishing the logical reasoning in theoretical framework, the next step in the research process is
A. To conduct surveys
B. To generate the hypothesis
C. To focus group discussions
D. To use experiments in an investigation
10- The appropriate analytical technique is determined by
A. The research design
B. Nature of the data collected
C. Nature of the hypothesis
D. Both A & B
E. Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as:

1. Mall interviews
2. Mall intercept interviews
3. Brief interviews
4. None of the given options

F. WATS lines provided by long distance telephone service at fixed rates. In this regard, WATS is the abbreviation of:

1. West Africa Theological Seminary
2. Washtenaw Area Transportation Study
3. Wide Area Telecommunications Service
4. World Air Transport Statistics

G. A list of questions which is handed over to the respondent, who reads the questions and records the answers himself is known as the:

1. Interview schedule
2. Questionnaire
3. Interview guide
4. All of the given options

H. One of the most critical stages in the survey research process is:

1. Research design
2. Questionnaire design
3. Interview design
4. Survey design

I. Question that consists of two or more questions joined together is called a:

1. Double barreled question
2. General question
3. Accurate question
4. Confusing question



J. The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the total number of eligible people who were contacted or asked to participate in the survey is called the:

1. Response rate
2. Participation rate
3. Inflation rate
4. None of the given options

K. To obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, when we ask general question before a specific question then this procedure is called as the:

1. Research technique
2. Qualitative technique
3. Funnel technique
4. Quantitative technique

L. A small scale trial run of a particular component is known as:

1. Pilot testing
2. Pre-testing
3. Lab experiments
4. Both A & B

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M. Field testing of the questionnaire shows that:

1. Respondents are willing to co-operate
2. Respondents are not willing to co-operate
3. Respondents do not like any participation
4. All of the given options

N. Service evaluation of hotels and restaurants can be done by the:

1. Self-administered questionnaires
2. Office assistant
3. Manager
4. None of the given options
A.